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Marja H. Cantell, Mary M. Smyth, and Timo P. Ahonen

This paper reports the follow-up at age 15 of a group of children who were diagnosed at age 5 as having delayed motor development. The group of children who were clumsy and the control group still differed in motor performance 10 years later: 46% of the members of the early motor delay group were classified as different from the control group on motor and perceptual tasks. The remainder made up an intermediate group that could not be clearly distinguished from the other groups. Adolescents with stable motor problems had fewer social hobbies and pastimes and had lower academic ambitions for their future than the controls, although the lower academic ambitions also reflect their lower academic achievements. The adolescents who were clumsy believed they were less physically and scholastically competent than the controls. However, they did not have poor opinions of their social acceptance or self-worth. The intermediate group, although they showed motor delay at age 5, had good school performance and high ambitions and engaged in social sports at age 15.

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Jens De Rycke, Veerle De Bosscher, Hiroaki Funahashi, and Popi Sotiriadou

Many Nations are increasingly investing public money in elite sport on the belief that this will trigger a range of benefits for the population. However, there is lack of insight into how the population perceives elite sport’s impact on society. This study developed and tested a measurement scale assessing the publics’ beliefs of the positive and negative societal impacts that could potentially flow from elite sport. A sample of the Belgian population (N = 1,102) was surveyed. A 32-item scale was built using principal component and confirmatory factor analysis procedures for which the goodness-of-fit indices were excellent. Multivariate analysis revealed that the Belgian population perceived elite sport to have mostly positive societal impacts. The study findings can serve researchers wanting to measure the perceived potential positive and negative societal impacts of elite sport.

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Elaine Chiao Ling Yang, Michelle Hayes, Jinyan Chen, Caroline Riot, and Catheryn Khoo-Lattimore

representations of female athletes with the overarching objective of sport custodians to reduce the marginalization and sexualization of female athletes on social media and produce a meaningful impact on social outcomes and participation rates of women and girls. Acknowledgment This study is funded by Griffith

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George B. Cunningham, Erin Buzuvis, and Chris Mosier

overview of case law and rulings from the U.S. Department of Education and the courts and then consider why such debates are needed, focusing on psychological, physical, and social outcomes associated with inclusion and exclusion. We also provide a summary of concerns related to transgender inclusion, with

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Dawn Anderson-Butcher, Allison Riley, Anthony Amorose, Aidyn Iachini, and Rebecca Wade-Mdivanian

Maximizing youth experiences in community sport programs is critical, particularly for vulnerable and/or marginalized youth who may have limited access and opportunity to these experiences. Using second-order latent growth modeling, this study explores the impact of a community sport program, the LiFE Sports Camp, on the development of social and sport skills among vulnerable youth. The importance of a sense of belonging as a key mechanism that contributes to youth outcomes also is examined. The findings of this research point to the value of community sport that is strategically designed to promote both sport and social outcomes in youth, as well as highlights the role of belonging in these contexts. Implications for sports management leaders and practitioners are discussed.

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Research Editorial Sheila E. Henderson 4 1994 11 2 111 114 10.1123/apaq.11.2.111 Clumsiness in Adolescence: Educational, Motor, and Social Outcomes of Motor Delay Detected at 5 Years Marja H. Cantell * Mary M. Smyth * Timo P. Ahonen * 4 1994 11 2 115 129 10.1123/apaq.11.2.115 Social and

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Fei Gao, Bob Heere, Samuel Y. Todd, and Brian Mihalik

over any others ( Andersson, Rustad, & Solberg, 2004 ; Mihalik, 2001 ; Mihalik & Simonetta, 1999 ) and value such changes as increased local pride and community spirit, the strengthening of regional values, and the enhanced international recognition of the region. Oftentimes, positive social outcomes

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Ari Kim

, national, and international basis. The author of Chapter 2 stresses how sport is used by governments and other organizations to achieve a variety of social outcomes and highlights the use of sport as a tool for nation building and national identity. The three remaining chapters of the first section provide

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Dawn Anderson-Butcher

implementation of youth sport to promote positive social outcomes. The first approach focuses on the contribution of youth sport to social- and/or life-skill development. The second explores the value of youth sport for addressing broader social problems. I highlight evidence-based strategies essential to both

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Ajhanai Channel Inez Newton

studying Black college athletes. Singer acknowledges that a significant amount of attention is given to the plight of Black male athletes, but their marginalization continues. Singer opens Chapter one by (a) demonstrating why issues of race and education are pertinent to the social outcomes of Black males