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Stephen Hills, Matthew Walker and Marlene Dixon

program in the United Kingdom, to demonstrate how the intended beneficiary effects did not materialize because the theory of change was not established, as the social problem was misunderstood. SFD Theory When the desired social outcomes are mapped against program curriculum, sport can contribute to

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Marja H. Cantell, Mary M. Smyth and Timo P. Ahonen

This paper reports the follow-up at age 15 of a group of children who were diagnosed at age 5 as having delayed motor development. The group of children who were clumsy and the control group still differed in motor performance 10 years later: 46% of the members of the early motor delay group were classified as different from the control group on motor and perceptual tasks. The remainder made up an intermediate group that could not be clearly distinguished from the other groups. Adolescents with stable motor problems had fewer social hobbies and pastimes and had lower academic ambitions for their future than the controls, although the lower academic ambitions also reflect their lower academic achievements. The adolescents who were clumsy believed they were less physically and scholastically competent than the controls. However, they did not have poor opinions of their social acceptance or self-worth. The intermediate group, although they showed motor delay at age 5, had good school performance and high ambitions and engaged in social sports at age 15.

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George B. Cunningham, Erin Buzuvis and Chris Mosier

overview of case law and rulings from the U.S. Department of Education and the courts and then consider why such debates are needed, focusing on psychological, physical, and social outcomes associated with inclusion and exclusion. We also provide a summary of concerns related to transgender inclusion, with

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Dawn Anderson-Butcher, Allison Riley, Anthony Amorose, Aidyn Iachini and Rebecca Wade-Mdivanian

Maximizing youth experiences in community sport programs is critical, particularly for vulnerable and/or marginalized youth who may have limited access and opportunity to these experiences. Using second-order latent growth modeling, this study explores the impact of a community sport program, the LiFE Sports Camp, on the development of social and sport skills among vulnerable youth. The importance of a sense of belonging as a key mechanism that contributes to youth outcomes also is examined. The findings of this research point to the value of community sport that is strategically designed to promote both sport and social outcomes in youth, as well as highlights the role of belonging in these contexts. Implications for sports management leaders and practitioners are discussed.

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Research Editorial Sheila E. Henderson 4 1994 11 2 111 114 10.1123/apaq.11.2.111 Clumsiness in Adolescence: Educational, Motor, and Social Outcomes of Motor Delay Detected at 5 Years Marja H. Cantell * Mary M. Smyth * Timo P. Ahonen * 4 1994 11 2 115 129 10.1123/apaq.11.2.115 Social and

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Fei Gao, Bob Heere, Samuel Y. Todd and Brian Mihalik

over any others ( Andersson, Rustad, & Solberg, 2004 ; Mihalik, 2001 ; Mihalik & Simonetta, 1999 ) and value such changes as increased local pride and community spirit, the strengthening of regional values, and the enhanced international recognition of the region. Oftentimes, positive social outcomes

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Ari Kim

, national, and international basis. The author of Chapter 2 stresses how sport is used by governments and other organizations to achieve a variety of social outcomes and highlights the use of sport as a tool for nation building and national identity. The three remaining chapters of the first section provide

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Dawn Anderson-Butcher

implementation of youth sport to promote positive social outcomes. The first approach focuses on the contribution of youth sport to social- and/or life-skill development. The second explores the value of youth sport for addressing broader social problems. I highlight evidence-based strategies essential to both

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Ajhanai Channel Inez Newton

studying Black college athletes. Singer acknowledges that a significant amount of attention is given to the plight of Black male athletes, but their marginalization continues. Singer opens Chapter one by (a) demonstrating why issues of race and education are pertinent to the social outcomes of Black males

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Andrew C. Billings, Melvin Lewis, Kenon A. Brown and Qingru Xu

social outcomes, and the influence of fantasy-football participation on second-screen uses, in which second-screen engagement was categorized into two types: enhancing social TV and distracting second screen. Several noteworthy insights pertaining to social-presence theory and practical values can be