The purpose of this research was to analyze social processes as an integral part of gender relations. A theoretical framework was developed using a three-part conceptualization of social processes. Data were collected during semistructured interviews with 35 individuals in three National Governing Bodies of sport in the UK and during unstructured interviews and observation in meetings and sport events attended by the participants. The data were coded and analyzed, and three gendered social processes were examined: informal networking, dress codes, and the use of humor. In the conclusion section, future directions are offered addressing the implications of this research for sport management practitioners, educators, and researchers.
The main aim of this article is to present the history of Polish football fandom as a social process which has coincided with the processes of transformation of Polish society over the last few decades. The fan movement in Poland dates back to the early 1970s when the communist authorities attempted to channel the activity of supporters. The 1980s, however, brought the development of a spontaneous movement with strong accents of hooliganism. The post-1989 transformation led to an economic and social crisis, with the rule of anarchy in football stadiums. Along with the formation of the democratic order, the fan movement evolved into different sections focused on particular aspects of activity. The paper is also devoted to the ideological dimension of fan culture, related to the conflict with the government at the turn of the 2010s.
Brian Wilson and Philip White
This paper examines the development of a grassroots movement to revive the defunct Ottawa Rough Riders CFL franchise. Particular attention is paid to the theoretical implications of this movement for understanding social processes of collective action in sport-related contexts, the political economic forces that guide/structure these processes, and relationships between sport-related interest groups, the state and mass media. This historical inquiry and theoretical discussion is based on interviews that were conducted with key members of the revival movement (in 1999 and 2000) and on a content and textual analysis of mass media coverage of the group (from February 1998 until July 2000). The paper concludes with some comments about the potential relevance of this study for broader work on community, identity, and sport and with recommendations for future research on sport-related grassroots movements.
Vicki D. Schull and Lisa A. Kihl
social process given that their sport experiences are dominated both by male leaders and masculine values associated with sport leadership. Social processes are gendered based on the degree to which they are defined, described, and evaluated in terms of masculine and feminine, male and female, and/or men
Lisa Kihl, Sally Shaw and Vicki Schull
This study examined organizational processes involved in a merger between two gender affiliated intercollegiate athletic departments. A conceptual framework incorporating the concepts of gendered social processes, and the transition and integration stages of organizational mergers framed the study. Organizational political activity is perceived as a gendered process in merging groups. Interviews with 57 stakeholders of a university athletic department were conducted. The data analysis showed that gender politics identified in the transition stage involved stakeholders’ emotional reactions. In the integration stage, gender politics were evident during the social processes of assessing trust and loyalties, and cultural reengineering. Practical implications for merger facilitation are noted in terms of considering the necessity of merging, the hiring of outside leadership, and implementing a communication plan. Overall, our study furthers our understanding of the gender politics involved in merging gender affiliated sport organizations.
Barry D. McPherson
To provide baseline information for future studies pertaining to sport participation and aging, this paper summarizes the literature on sport participation patterns across the life cycle, briefly describes the importance of analyzing aging as a social process, and argues that alternative theoretical frameworks including a life-span developmental perspective should be utilized in future studies. The paper also introduces a number of theoretical and methodological issues that should be addressed concerning research in this area, and raises a variety of research questions that must be pursued in order to better understand sport phenomena from a life cycle perspective, especially during the middle and later years of life.
George B. Cunningham
The purpose of this study was to examine the diversity-related change process a university athletic department was undertaking. A comprehensive model was developed by drawing from full integration theory and institutional theory. Following an organizational diagnosis perspective, data were collected through semistructured interviews, internal documents from the athletic department and university culture centers, associated websites, and press releases. Results indicate that political, functional, and social pressures for change influenced the implementation of various diversity initiatives. Despite these efforts, two primary groups of factors served to impede the progress: organizational factors, in the form of top management support and systemic integration, and perceptual processes, in the form of social processes and utility. Results suggest that for diversity-related change to be successful, it is important to consider how diversity impacts the entire sport organization, internal and external stakeholders’ perceptions, and the meaningful influence of organizational factors.
John W. Mahoney, Daniel F. Gucciardi, Clifford J. Mallett and Nikos Ntoumanis
In light of the extant literature, the aim of the current study was to compare adolescents’ perspectives on mental toughness and its development across performance contexts, and to explore if such perspectives align with Bronfenbrenner’s (2001) bioecological model. Eighteen mentally tough adolescents (9 boys, 9 girls, Mage = 15.6 years) from three performance contexts (i.e., sport, academia, and music) participated in focus groups, 7 of whom also participated in follow-up one-to-one interviews. Inductive analyses revealed that mental toughness was conceptualized by 9 personal characteristics, and that while similar across performance contexts, some difference between previous mental toughness conceptualization and the current study existed. Analyses also revealed that mental toughness development was predicated on significant others, supportive social processes, critical incidents, and curiosity. These findings resonated with the properties of the bioecological model. Future research into how bioecological factors combine to facilitate mental toughness development during critical stages of life was suggested.
This paper presents an ethnographic study of the Canadian Television Network’s (CTV) production of the 1988 Winter Olympic ice-hockey tournament. Interview data and media documents are analyzed to uncover how CTV strategically employed hockey as a spectacle of accumulation to boost ratings, expand market positioning, and to attract sponsors while blocking media competitors. At another level of understanding, ethnographic observations of the televisual labor process provide insights into how Olympic broadcasting constitutes a form of mediated communication or a spectacle of legitimation. Observations illustrate how the crew remade the live sporting event into a series of select cultural images. The manufacturing of Olympic images is revealed to be a social process that reproduces select systems of meaning, reinforces particular modes of media production, and strengthens monopolistic network relationships.
Charles P. Gallmeier
Dramaturgical analysis is used in a participant observation study of the emotional performances of professional hockey players before, during, and after professional games. The structure for the staging of these emotional displays is briefly described, but much more attention is placed on understanding the social processes involved in the mental or emotional preparation the players undergo in getting psyched up and “putting on the game face.” The staging of emotions is seen to evolve from expectation for emotional experience, to diffuse emotional readiness, and finally to quite specific emotional displays. The staging of emotions is shown to be directed by socialization agents (i.e., coach, trainer, teammates) who evoke rapidly shifting emotional expressions for each game day situation.