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Damon Andrew and Mary Hums

Several studies in business and sport have noted systematic differences in leadership behavior between men and women. Many of these studies only examined leadership behavior from the perspective of the leader or the follower. This study’s purpose was to examine the impact that a coach’s gender may have on leadership behavior indicators as reported by leaders and followers. Collegiate women’s tennis coaches (M = 40; F = 71) and female collegiate tennis players (n = 167) participated in separate studies and completed the Revised Leadership Scale for Sports (Zhang, Jensen, & Mann, 1997), which assesses the following six leadership behaviors: training and instruction, democratic behavior, autocratic behavior, social support, positive feedback, and situation consideration. Study one examined self-reported leadership differences on the basis of sex from the leader’s perspective and found female coaches reported significantly less (p = .048) autocratic behavior than male coaches. Study two examined leadership differences from the female athletes’ perspective and found no significant differences in perceived leadership behavior based on the coach’s sex. These findings are subsequently discussed within the context of social role theory. The results of this study support the notion that perceived gender role orientations become linked to the social roles occupied rather than the leader’s gender.

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Kirstin Hallmann, Anita Zehrer, Sheranne Fairley and Lea Rossi

, 2015 ). This study utilizes social role theory to understand gender differences in volunteering. Social role theory posits that the behavior of males and females differs based on belief-based gender roles ( Eagly, Wood, & Diekman, 2000 ). These social roles are constituted through typical activities

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Jeffrey J. Martin, Carol Adams-Mushett and Kari L. Smith

Measures of athletic identity and sport orientation, developed from self-schema theory, social role theory, and achievement motivation theory, were used to examine international adolescent swimmers with disabilities. The multidimensional Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (Brewer, Van Raalte, & Linder, 1993) was used to assess self-identity, social identity, exclusivity, and negative affectivity. The Sport Orientation Questionnaire (Gill & Deeter, 1988) measured competitiveness, win orientation, and goal orientation. Swimmers reported (a) a strong self-identity, (b) a moderate to strong social identity, (c) negative affectivity with lower levels of exclusivity, (d) strong competitiveness and goal orientation, and (e) moderate win orientation. Self-identity was correlated with competitiveness, suggesting that swimmers did not simply report an identification with an athletic role; they also reported a strong desire to attain competitive goals. Additionally, exclusivity was associated with negative affectivity, indicating that athletes without diversified self-schemas may be at risk for emotional problems when unable to compete. In general, the results indicated that these swimmers possess a strong athletic identity and that sport is important to them.

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Jessica Barrett, Alicia Pike and Stephanie Mazerolle

barrier to the advancement of women in athletic training, especially in college athletics. 15 , 16 According to social role theory, 18 women are often viewed as the caregiver and manager of the domestic and household domains, leading some to believe they are not inherently prepared to lead or handle the

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Nicole M. LaVoi and Matea Wasend

). “Someone like me can be successful”: Do college students need same-gender role models? Psychology of Women Quarterly, 30 ( 1 ), 36 – 46 . doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.2006.00260.x Madsen , R.M. , & McGarry , J.E. ( 2016 ). “Dads play basketball, moms go shopping!” Social role theory and the

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Allyson C. Hartzell and Marlene A. Dixon

. According to social role theory, people have shared expectations of others who hold particular roles in society or in an organization. Gender role theory has a narrower focus on the socially shared role expectations of men and women, specifically, or the beliefs and attributes that are ascribed to a person

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Vicki D. Schull and Lisa A. Kihl

.23.3.305 10.1123/jsm.23.3.305 Lincoln , Y.S. ( 1985 ). Naturalistic inquiry . Beverly Hills, CA : Sage . 10.1016/0147-1767(85)90062-8 Madsen , R.M. ( 2016 ). “Dads play basketball, moms go shopping!” Social role theory and the preference for male coaches . Journal of Contemporary Athletics

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Jacqueline McDowell, Yung-Kuei Huang and Arran Caza

– 802 . doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2011.01225.x 10.1111/j.1744-6570.2011.01225.x Harrison , L.A. , & Lynch , A.B. ( 2005 ). Social role theory and the perceived gender role orientation of athletes . Sex Roles , 52 , 227 – 236 . doi:10.1007/s11199-005-1297-1 10.1007/s11199-005-1297-1 Hayes , A

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Bradley J. Baker, Jeremy S. Jordan and Daniel C. Funk

between sport event and destination on behavioural intentions . Tourism Review, 65 ( 1 ), 66 – 74 . doi:10.1108/16605371011040915 10.1108/16605371011040915 Harrison , L.A. , & Lynch , A.B. ( 2005 ). Social role theory and the perceived gender role orientation of athletes . Sex Roles, 52 ( 3