Disability sports organizations could benefit from a better understanding of the factors leading individuals with disabilities to participate in sport. This study explored relationships among four sources of motivation (i.e., escape, self-esteem enhancement, self-improvement, and social interaction) and six forms of social support (i.e., emotional challenge, emotional support, listening support, reality confirmation, task appreciation, and task challenge) among 133 male and 60 female wheelchair athletes, ages 13–34 years. Differences in motivation and social support needs were examined according to athletes’ gender, age, playing level, skill level, years of participation, and future playing intentions. Results indicated that males were more motivated than females were by desire for escape and that long-term participants were more motivated than novices were by self-esteem enhancement. Escape, self-improvement, and social interaction were stronger motivators for high school athletes than for collegiate athletes. Importance of social support types differed according to skill level, playing level, years played, and future playing intentions.
Scott R. Swanson, Tom Colwell and Yushan Zhao
Lynne H. Johnston and Douglas Carroll
To examine the coping strategies used after injury and the provision of and satisfaction with social support as functions of sport involvement and stage of rehabilitation.
Complete data were available at 3 points (beginning, middle, and end of formal rehabilitation) for 93 patients, all of whom had sustained injury restricting normal functioning for at least 21 days.
Coping varied as a function of stage in rehabilitation, with patients deploying all strategies more at the beginning of rehabilitation. There was little variation in coping and social support, although those more involved in sport adopted a support-seeking coping strategy to a greater extent. Irrespective of sports-involvement status, women were more satisfied with practical and emotional support. Those who were more involved in sport were judged by their physiotherapists to be better adherents. Adoption of an emotional discharge coping strategy was negatively associated with adherence throughout rehabilitation.
Natalie M. Golaszewski and John B. Bartholomew
( HealthyPeople 2020, 2014 ). As a result, there has been an extensive history of research into social-psychological processes that might be related to physical activity. One of the more researched areas is social support ( Courneya, Plotnikoff, Hotz, & Birkett, 2000 ; Sallis, Hovell, Hofstetter, & Barrington
Ya-Wen Hsu, Chih-Ping Chou, Selena T. Nguyen-Rodriguez, Arianna D. McClain, Britni R. Belcher and Donna Spruijt-Metz
A profound decline in physical activity occurs in puberty. This phenomenon is not well understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine associations between family/friend social support for physical activity, negative meanings of physical activity (NMPA), and internal /external barriers to physical activity with moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and sedentary and light behavior (SLB) in youth.
A total of 350 participants from 7 Los Angeles County middle schools participated in the study (62% Latina, 79% females). Hypothesized pathways were examined using structural equation modeling. Psychosocial variables and participation in MVPA and SLB were assessed by self-reported questionnaires.
NMPA were related to lower levels of family/friend social support and greater internal/external barriers. Family social support was the only significant indicator of MVPA (β = 0.79). Low family social support was related to higher SLB (β = −0.25).
Family social support seems crucial to promote MVPA and reduce SLB in adolescents and might be influenced by child’s feelings about physical activity. Future research should consider the interrelationship between psychosocial correlates of physical activity.
Meghan H. McDonough, Catherine M. Sabiston and Sarah Ullrich-French
Physical activity experiences may contribute to psychological and social wellbeing among breast cancer survivors. The main purpose of the current study was to qualitatively explore the development of social relationships, social support, and posttraumatic growth among breast cancer survivors participating in a dragon boat program over 19 months. Guided by interpretative phenomenological analysis (Smith, Flowers, & Larkin, 2009), semistructured interviews were conducted with 17 breast cancer survivors on five occasions over their first two seasons of dragon boating. Narrative accounts were developed for each participant, and four profiles emerged describing processes of social and posttraumatic growth development over time: “developing a feisty spirit of survivorship,” “I don’t want it to be just about me,” “it’s not about the pink it’s about the paddling,” and “hard to get close.” Profiles were discussed in terms of developing social relationships and support, providing support to others, physicality and athleticism, and negative interactions and experiences.
This study investigates whether African American student-athletes receive encouragement to participate in sport from the black community (e.g., parents) or from other socializing agents (e.g., teachers, coaches, and friends). A questionnaire was administered to 23 teams in two summer basketball leagues in Washington, D.C., during the summer of 1985. The findings indicate that African American student-athletes are more likely to perceive social support for playing basketball from coaches and friends and especially teachers, who provide encouragement for African Americans to participate in sport, but not from parents. Moreover, support for playing basketball is associated with professional sport aspirations for black, but not white, males.
Damien Clement and Vanessa R. Shannon
According to the buffering hypothesis, social support moderates the harmful effects of stress and, in turn, indirectly affects injured athletes’ health and well-being. Previous research suggests that perceptions of social support influence athletes’ psychological reactions, as well as their rehabilitation adherence, but additional research in this area is warranted.
To examine injured athletes’ perceptions regarding satisfaction, availability, and contribution for each of the 8 types of social support.
Mid-Atlantic Division II and III institutions.
49 injured athletes.
Main Outcome Measures:
Social support was assessed using a modified version of the Social Support Survey.
Injured athletes were significantly more satisfied with social support provided by athletic trainers (ATCs) than that provided by coaches and teammates. In addition, injured athletes reported that social support provided by ATCs contributed significantly more to their overall well-being. Athletes reported several significant differences regarding satisfaction and contribution to well-being among the 8 different types of social support.
Injury, an unavoidable part of sport, is often accompanied by negative psychological reactions. This reaction may have a negative influence on an athlete’s experience of injury and rehabilitation. Findings suggest that perceptions of social support provided by ATCs have the greatest influence on injured athletes’ rehabilitation and well-being.
Susana Carrapatoso, Greet Cardon, Delfien Van Dyck, Joana Carvalho and Freja Gheysen
depression (around 20%) verified in older adults in Western countries ( Volkert, Schulz, Harter, Wlodarczyk, & Andreas, 2013 ). Growing evidence suggests that social support plays an important role in the regulation of depressive symptoms ( Julien, Gauvin, Richard, Kestens, & Payette, 2013 ), and stronger
Jeffrey J. Martin and Carol A. Mushett
The purpose of this investigation was to describe social support mechanisms of swimmers with disabilities and examine relationships among social support, self-efficacy, and athletic satisfaction. Results indicated that athletes felt satisfied with the social support they received. Mothers and friends provided primary support in a variety of areas requiring non-sport-related knowledge. Additionally, there were important secondary sources of support in areas requiring sport-specific knowledge. Coaches were primary sources of support in areas that required sport expertise. Fathers were also important sources of secondary support in areas that required both sport expertise and nonsport expertise. Correlational results suggested that athletes who were supported by being listened to and by being challenged to become better athletes and people also reported strong self-efficacy.
Zoë A. Poucher, Katherine A. Tamminen and Gretchen Kerr
Within sport, social support has been identified as important for athletes to manage stress ( Gould, Finch, & Jackson, 1993; Rees & Freeman, 2011 ), and researchers have documented how social support is associated with a number of positive outcomes for athletes ( Cranmer & Sollitto, 2015