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Jiri Mudrak, Pavel Slepicka, and Steriani Elavsky

We tested a social cognitive model of physical activity (PA) in the cultural context of the Czech Republic, a postcommunist central European country. In total, 546 older Czech adults (mean age = 68 years, data collected in 2013) completed a battery of questionnaires assessing indicators of PA and related social cognitive constructs, including self-efficacy, social support, and self-regulation strategies. Subsequently, a structural equation model was used to test the relationship between the social cognitive constructs and PA. Our analyses indicated an acceptable fit of the proposed model (CFI = .911; SRMR = .046; RMSEA = .073). Self-regulation was predicted by self-efficacy (β = .67) and social support (β = .23), which predicted PA (β = .45). The model explained 60.4% of the variance in PA self-regulation and 20.5% of the variance in PA participation. The results provide further evidence for the role of self-efficacy and social support in enabling PA in older adults, and suggest that this relationship is partially mediated by self-regulation.

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Maria-Christina Kosteli, Jennifer Cumming, and Sarah E. Williams

healthy aging. However, it is important to first understand the key determinants of PA behavior in this population, and how techniques that can increase PA relate to the different determinants. One of the most popular theories used to explain PA behavior in middle-aged and older adults is social cognitive

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James R. Vallerand, Ryan E. Rhodes, Gordan J. Walker, and Kerry S. Courneya

Intervention on Social Cognitive Processes Changes in exercise social cognitive processes are presented in Table  2 . Pertaining to ongoing motivational processes, medium-sized between-group differences were noted for affective attitude (MBGD adj  = 0.6, 95% CI, 0.1 to 1.2, d  = 0.71) and perceived

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Deborah L. Dewar, David Revalds Lubans, Philip James Morgan, and Ronald C. Plotnikoff

Background:

This study aimed to develop and evaluate the construct validity and reliability of modernized social cognitive measures relating to physical activity behaviors in adolescents.

Methods:

An instrument was developed based on constructs from Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory and included the following scales: self-efficacy, situation (perceived physical environment), social support, behavioral strategies, and outcome expectations and expectancies. The questionnaire was administered in a sample of 171 adolescents (age = 13.6 ± 1.2 years, females = 61%). Confirmatory factor analysis was employed to examine model-fit for each scale using multiple indices, including chi-square index, comparative-fit index (CFI), goodness-of-fit index (GFI), and the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA). Reliability properties were also examined (ICC and Cronbach’s alpha).

Results:

Each scale represented a statistically sound measure: fit indices indicated each model to be an adequate-to-exact fit to the data; internal consistency was acceptable to good (α = 0.63−0.79); rank order repeatability was strong (ICC = 0.82−0.91).

Conclusions:

Results support the validity and reliability of social cognitive scales relating to physical activity among adolescents. As such, the developed scales have utility for the identification of potential social cognitive correlates of youth physical activity, mediators of physical activity behavior changes and the testing of theoretical models based on Social Cognitive Theory.

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Galen A. Yordy and Robert W. Lent

This study explored the utility of reasoned action, planned behavior, and social cognitive models in explaining aerobic exercise intentions and behavior. Two hundred eighty-four college students completed measures of each model's central predictor variables, as well as indices of prior exercise frequency and future exercise intentions and behavior. Findings indicate that the reasoned action and social cognitive models are each significantly predictive of future exercise intention and behavior. The planned behavior model did not improve over the theory of reasoned action in predictive analyses. The effects of prior exercise activity on future exercise behavior are also partially mediated by variables from the reasoned action and social cognitive models. Implications for further research on theories of exercise behavior are discussed.

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Jeffrey J. Martin and Nate McCaughtry

Researchers using social cognitive theory and employing built environment constructs to predict physical activity (PA) in inner-city African American children is quite limited. Thus, the purpose of our investigation was to evaluate the ability of important social cognitive variables (e.g., self-efficacy) and built environment constructs (e.g., neighborhood hazards) to predict African American children’s PA. Children (N = 331, ages 10–14) completed questionnaires assessing social cognitive theory constructs and PA. Using multiple regression analyses we were able to account for 19% of the variance in PA. Based on standardized beta weights, the best predictors of PA were time spent outside and social support derived from friends. These findings illuminate the valuable role of PA support from peers, as well as the simple act of going outside for inner-city African American children.

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David A. Dzewaltowski, John M. Noble, and Jeff M. Shaw

Social cognitive theory and the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior were examined in the prediction of 4 weeks of physical activity participation. The theories of reasoned action and planned behavior were supported. Attitude and perceived control predicted intention, and intention predicted physical activity participation. The social cognitive theory variables significantly predicted physical activity participation, with self-efficacy and self-evaluation of the behavior significantly contributing to the prediction. The greater the confidence in participating in physical activity and the greater the satisfaction with present physical activity, the more physical activity performed. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that perceived control and intentions did not account for any unique variation in physical activity participation over self-efficacy. Therefore the social cognitive theory constructs were better predictors of physical activity than those from the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior.

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Edward McAuley, Shannon L. Mihalko, and Karl Rosengren

This study examined relationships among physical activity patterns, self-efficacy, balance, and fear of falling in older adults. Fifty-eight older adults (52-85 years) completed measures of physical activity, self-efficacy, and fear of falling. Subjects then performed the items found in the Berg Balance Scale (Berg, Wood-Dauphinee, Williams, & Maki, 1992). More physically active adults were less fearful of falling, had better balance, and had stronger perceptions of efficacy. Those with better balance were less fearful of falling, and females were more fearful than males. Balance and self-efficacy had significant independent effects on fear, whereas the contribution of history of physical activity was nonsignificant. The findings suggest that behavioral, social cognitive, and biological factors may be important correlates of fear of falling. Further support is provided for the utility of self-efficacy measures in the prediction of fear of falling, although reliance on any one measure to assess this construct may underestimate the role of self-efficacy.

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Jennifer Brunet and Catherine M. Sabiston

This study examined (1) the relationships between self-presentation processes (i.e., impression motivation and impression construction) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among breast cancer survivors, and (2) whether social cognitive constructs (i.e., self-presentational efficacy expectancy [SPEE]; self-presentational outcome expectancy [SPOE]; self-presentational outcome value [SPOV]) moderate these relationships. Breast cancer survivors (N = 169; M age = 55.06, SD = 10.67 years) completed self-report measures. Hierarchical regression analysis, controlling for age and body mass index, indicated that impression motivation was a significant correlate of MVPA (β = .25). Furthermore, SPEE (β = .21) and SPOV (β = .27) were moderators of this relationship. The final models accounted for 12–24% of the variance in MVPA. The findings of this study suggest that self-presentation processes (i.e., impression motivation) may indeed relate to breast cancer survivors’ MVPA. In addition, social cognitive constructs (i.e., SPEE, SPOV) moderated the relationship between impression motivation and MVPA. It may be effective to target impression motivation, SPEE, and SPOV in interventions aimed at increasing MVPA among breast cancer survivors.

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M. Renée Umstattd and Jeffrey Hallam

Exercise is consistently related to physical and psychological health benefits in older adults. Bandura’s social-cognitive theory (SCT) is one theoretical perspective on understanding and predicting exercise behavior. Thus, the authors examined whether three SCT variables—self-efficacy, self-regulation, and outcome-expectancy value—predicted older adults’ (N = 98) exercise behavior. Bivariate analyses revealed that regular exercise was associated with being male, White, and married; having higher income, education, and self-efficacy; using self-regulation skills; and having favorable outcome-expectancy values (p < .05). In a simultaneous multivariate model, however, self-regulation (p = .0097) was the only variable independently associated with regular exercise. Thus, exercise interventions targeting older adults should include components aimed at increasing the use of self-regulation strategies.