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John C. Spence, Chris M. Blanchard, Marianne Clark, Ronald C. Plotnikoff, Kate E. Storey, and Linda McCargar

Background:

The purposes of this study were to determine if a) gender moderated the relationship between self-efficacy and physical activity (PA) among youth in Alberta, Canada, and, alternatively b) if self-efficacy mediated the relationship between gender and PA.

Methods:

A novel web-based tool was used to survey a regionally diverse sample of 4779 students (boys = 2222, girls = 2557) from 117 schools in grades 7 to 10 (mean age = 13.64 yrs.). Among other variables, students were asked about their PA and self-efficacy for participating in PA.

Results:

Based upon a series of multilevel analyses, self-efficacy was found to be a significantly stronger correlate of PA for girls. But, boys had significantly higher self-efficacy compared with girls, which resulted in significantly more PA.

Conclusions:

Findings suggest self-efficacy is an important correlate of PA among adolescent girls but that boys are more physically active because they have more self-efficacy for PA.

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Maria Kavussanu and Christopher Ring

, that is more representative of adult sport. In addition, research is needed to identify factors that influence moral disengagement. Moral Identity and Doping Building, in part, on the social cognitive model of moral behavior ( Bandura, 1991 ), Aquino and Reed ( 2002 ) described the psychological

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Galen A. Yordy and Robert W. Lent

This study explored the utility of reasoned action, planned behavior, and social cognitive models in explaining aerobic exercise intentions and behavior. Two hundred eighty-four college students completed measures of each model's central predictor variables, as well as indices of prior exercise frequency and future exercise intentions and behavior. Findings indicate that the reasoned action and social cognitive models are each significantly predictive of future exercise intention and behavior. The planned behavior model did not improve over the theory of reasoned action in predictive analyses. The effects of prior exercise activity on future exercise behavior are also partially mediated by variables from the reasoned action and social cognitive models. Implications for further research on theories of exercise behavior are discussed.

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Ralph Maddison and Harry Prapavessis

There were three aims to the present study: (a) to test a social cognitive model based on self-efficacy and intention in predicting compliance to exercise in a Phase 2 cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program; (b) to examine temporal patterns of self-efficacy in an 18-week exercise CR program; and (c) to ascertain whether the social-cognitive variables act more as determinant or consequence of exercise behavior during the program. Forty-one participants (29 M, 12 F; mean age 63 ± 9 .81 yrs) with documented ischemic heart disease enrolled in an 18-week supervised walking-based Phase 2 CR exercise program. They completed scales assessing self-efficacy and intention at the beginning of the program (Time 1) and again at Weeks 7 (Time 2) and 13 (Time 3). Compliance behavior was assessed through daily attendance and exercise energy expenditure measures, via metabolic equivalents (ACSM Guidelines, 1995). Data provide general support for the social cognitive model. That is, positive and meaningful relationships were found among self-efficacy, intention, and objectively measured exercise behavior, explaining 16 to 59% of the variance. Results also showed that both task and barrier efficacy significantly improved during the early part of the exercise program and then leveled off during program termination. Finally, results suggest that social-cognitive variables act more as a determinant than a consequence of exercise behavior. The findings underscore the need for scale congruence between the measures of self-efficacy, intention, and objective measures of exercise behavior.

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Philip Furley, Fanny Thrien, Johannes Klinge, and Jannik Dörr

The goal of the present research was to investigate whether claims (postperformance nonverbal emotional expressions) influence people in evaluating performance during surf contests. To test this research question, the authors sampled videos from professional surf contests and asked laypeople (Experiment 1; N = 110) and surf judges (Experiment 2; N = 41) to evaluate the performance in 2 online experiments. A subset of the surfing performances showed surfers displaying postperformance emotional expressions (claims), while another subset showed the same performances without the claims (nonverbal emotional expressions). Both experiments provided evidence that both laypeople and surf judges were biased by claims in judging surfing performances, with claims better than the performances without claims. The findings are in line with social-cognitive models emphasizing the socioconsequences of emotion expressions. The authors discuss the implications of the findings for sport competitions that rely on judging sport performance.

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Meghann Lloyd, Greg Reid, and Marcel Bouffard

The research purpose was to examine the domain specific self-regulatory skills of boys with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD, n = 10) compared to peers without DCD (n = 10). A sport specific problem-solving task (hockey shot) and an educational problem-solving task (peg solitaire) were compared. Guided by Zimmerman’s (2000) social cognitive model of self-regulation, participants were taught to think aloud. Codes were developed under five categories: goals, knowledge, emotion, monitoring, and evaluation. The quantity of verbalization was similar in both groups but differences were found in verbalization quality. Results indicate that boys with DCD have emotional and planning differences on the hockey task, but only planning differences were evident on the peg solitaire task.

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Vaughan Roberts, Ralph Maddison, Jane Magnusson, and Harry Prapavessis

Background:

The current study tested the utility of an integrated social cognitive model to predict physical activity (PA) intentions and behavior in New Zealand adolescents.

Method:

Seventy-two adolescents (mean age = 16.92, SD = 0.66) completed measures consistent with the integrated model (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control [PBC], goal intention, task-efficacy, barrier efficacy, and implementation intention). Pedometer data (Yamax SW200 pedometer) were collected for 7 days, and a self-report 7-day recall questionnaire was administered at the end of this week. A series of hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine the contribution of the model to PA goal intention, implementation intention, self-reported and objective PA.

Results:

The integrated model accounted for 41% of goal intention, 33% of implementation intention, and 41% and 18% of subjectively and objectively measured PA, respectively. PBC had the strongest association with goal intention whereas attitude had the strongest association with implementation intention. Task-efficacy made the greatest contribution to objectively measured PA, whereas implementation intention had the strongest association with subjectively measured PA.

Conclusion:

These findings have implications regarding PA measurement in adolescent populations, and suggest that social cognitive variables play an important role in adolescent PA. Recommendations for future research are discussed.

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Jiri Mudrak, Pavel Slepicka, and Steriani Elavsky

We tested a social cognitive model of physical activity (PA) in the cultural context of the Czech Republic, a postcommunist central European country. In total, 546 older Czech adults (mean age = 68 years, data collected in 2013) completed a battery of questionnaires assessing indicators of PA and related social cognitive constructs, including self-efficacy, social support, and self-regulation strategies. Subsequently, a structural equation model was used to test the relationship between the social cognitive constructs and PA. Our analyses indicated an acceptable fit of the proposed model (CFI = .911; SRMR = .046; RMSEA = .073). Self-regulation was predicted by self-efficacy (β = .67) and social support (β = .23), which predicted PA (β = .45). The model explained 60.4% of the variance in PA self-regulation and 20.5% of the variance in PA participation. The results provide further evidence for the role of self-efficacy and social support in enabling PA in older adults, and suggest that this relationship is partially mediated by self-regulation.

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Diane L. Gill

s Social cognitive models Health psychology emerges Competitiveness Book Winning is not the only thing (or most important). Integrative scholarship versus narrow research agenda. 1990s Sport psychology–exercise psychology Applied sport psychology Physical activity and fall prevention Mentoring

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Samantha M. Gray, Peggy Chen, Lena Fleig, Paul A. Gardiner, Megan M. McAllister, Joseph H. Puyat, Joanie Sims-Gould, Heather A. McKay, Meghan Winters, and Maureen C. Ashe

Global Positioning System (GPS). 14 Using social ecological and social cognitive models, a novel approach was developed to promote adoption of physical activity behavior through active and public transportation: Everyday Activity Supports You (EASY). The social ecological model suggests that multiple