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Jennifer A. Scarduzio, Christina S. Walker, Nicky Lewis, and Anthony M. Limperos

. For practitioners, the findings illustrate that journalists need to employ thematic framing—presenting all of the factors that occur surrounding the violence, rather than just describing the incident in an episodic manner. Theoretically, we used the social ecological model (SEM) to qualitatively

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Rebecca Megan Stanley, Kobie Boshoff, and James Dollman

Background:

The after-school period is potentially a “critical window” for promoting physical activity in children. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore children’s perceptions of the factors influencing their engagement in physical activity during the after-school period as the first phase in the development of a questionnaire.

Methods:

Fifty-four South Australian children age 10−13 years participated in same gender focus groups. Transcripts, field notes, and activity documents were analyzed using content analysis. Through an inductive thematic approach, data were coded and categorized into perceived barriers and facilitators according to a social ecological model.

Results:

Children identified a number of factors, including safety in the neighborhood and home settings, distance to and from places, weather, availability of time, perceived competence, enjoyment of physical activity, peer influence, and parent influence. New insights into bullying and teasing by peers and fear of dangerous animals and objects were revealed by the children.

Conclusions:

In this study, hearing children’s voices allowed the emergence of factors which may not be exposed using existing surveys. These findings are grounded in children’s perceptions and therefore serve as a valuable contribution to the existing literature, potentially leading to improved intervention and questionnaire design.

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Thomas Quarmby and Katie Pickering

Background:

It is argued that regular engagement in physical activity (PA) has the potential to mitigate the negative health and educational outcomes that disadvantaged children living in care frequently face. However, little is currently known about children in care’s participation in PA. This scoping review primarily aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to PA participation for children in care.

Methods:

The main phases of the scoping review were 1) identifying relevant studies; 2) selecting studies based on predefined inclusion criteria; 3) charting the data; and 4) collating, summarizing, and reporting the results. All relevant studies were included in the review regardless of methodological quality and design.

Results:

The 7 articles that met the inclusion criteria were published between 1998 and 2013 and conducted in the USA (3), England (2), and Norway (2). A social ecological model was incorporated to map results against levels of influence.

Conclusions:

Various factors influence PA engagement for children in care. Barriers include low self-efficacy, instability of their social environment, which impacts on schooling and maintaining friendship groups, and, specific institutional practices and policies that may prevent access to PA. Before fully considering policy implications, further research with children in care is warranted in this area.

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Laurie L. Schmidt, Shanthi Johnson, M. Rebecca Genoe, Bonnie Jeffery, and Jennifer Crawford

: identifying the research question; identifying relevant research studies; selecting studies; charting the data; and collating, summarizing, and reporting the results. The theoretical model used to direct the scoping review was the social ecological model, which emphasizes multiple levels of influence on

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Gabriella M. McLoughlin, Kim C. Graber, Amelia M. Woods, Tom Templin, Mike Metzler, and Naiman A. Khan

these stakeholders would provide valuable information necessary for strengthening school health promotion models. Theoretical Framework The social ecological model (SEM) was developed to contextualize individual health behavior in relation to external factors ( Stokols, 1992 ). One of the core

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Jeffrey P. Carpenter and Stephen Harvey

physical educators perceive in their uses of social media for professional purposes? and (b) What challenges do physical educators perceive in their uses of social media for professional purposes? Theoretical Framework A social ecological model was employed to frame the benefits and challenges educators

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Basia Belza, Christina E. Miyawaki, Peg Allen, Diane K. King, David X. Marquez, Dina L. Jones, Sarah Janicek, Dori Rosenberg, and David R. Brown

perspectives, to encourage walking and why mid-life and older adults chose to walk in those locations. As a study-guiding framework, we used the social-ecological model ( McLeroy, Bibeau, Steckler, & Glanz, 1988 ). The social-ecological model considers the dynamic interplay between personal and environmental

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Victoria S. Davila, David E. Conroy, and Margaret K. Danilovich

.K. Danilovich) then categorized and combined the initial codes to form overarching themes independently. Furthermore, we identified and classified key concepts from each overarching theme into subthemes together. We then applied the social–ecological model (SEM) ( McLeroy, Bibeau, Steckler, & Glanz, 1988

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Stephanie L. Silveira, Jessica F. Baird, and Robert W. Motl

SCT include person level through social and environmental factors and can be aligned and studied through ecological frameworks ( Winett, Williams, & Davy, 2009 ). Social ecological models (SEMs), in particular, provide a guide for conceptualizing the unique influences of macro

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Debra J. Rose

Despite the significant increase in years that an individual can now expect to live in the 21st century, there is growing evidence that the price for greater longevity may be worsening health due to the higher prevalence of nonfatal but disabling conditions. This sobering news suggests the need for expanded scientific inquiry directed at understanding the multilevel factors that promote or prevent physical activity (PA) participation and the adoption of healthy lifestyle behaviors and the types of intervention strategies that will be most effective in positively changing behavior at different life stages. Fruitful areas of future scientific inquiry include exploring other types and intensities of PA aimed at increasing PA participation while reducing sedentary behavior, better understanding the role of the physical and social environment in promoting PA participation, and designing and evaluating multilevel PA interventions that are better tailored to the activity preferences, goals, and expectations of a diverse older adult population, and flexibly delivered in real-world settings. Finally, conducting research aimed at better differentiating normal age-associated changes from those that are disease-related will be fundamental to reversing the negative stereotypes that currently shape the public’s view of the aging process.