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Ka-Man Leung, Pak-Kwong Chung, Tin-Lok Yuen, Jing Dong Liu, and Donggen Wang

interventions or programs should be developed that consider the relationships between the factors of the individual environment, the social environment (SE), the physical environment, and public policy. SE refers to the relationships, culture, and society with which an individual interacts, such as their

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Krystn Orr, M. Blair Evans, Katherine A. Tamminen, and Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos

for participation than during childhood and adolescence (e.g., fewer recreational sport programs to choose from, and unknown quality of the program). When they do gain access to programs, their experiences may be benign or disenfranchising experiences because of inadequate social environments with

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Ross M. Murray and Catherine M. Sabiston

within sport teams, therefore, may be an effective strategy to improve adolescent sport experiences and, in return, reduce adolescent sport dropout. Social identity may be particularly important for adolescent girls, who typically place high importance on the social environment ( Spencer et al., 2015

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Mary K. Wolfe and Noreen C. McDonald

Background:

Independent travel among youth has diminished and rates of obesity have increased. It remains empirically unclear what factors influence the degree to which parents allow, or even enable, their children to be independently mobile. We analyze the association between parental perceptions of the social environment and the degree of independent mobility among children.

Methods:

Surveys were conducted with 305 parents of 10- to 14-year-olds in the Bay Area during 2006 and 2007. The social environment was measured with scales assessing parental perceptions of child-centered social control, intergenerational closure, social cohesion, and safety from crime and traffic. Independent mobility was measured as a composite variable reflecting the degree to which a child is allowed to do the following without adult accompaniment: travel to neighborhood destinations, walk around the neighborhood, cross main roads, and ride transit.

Results:

We find modest evidence of an association between parental perceptions of social cohesion and safety from traffic and independent mobility outcomes among children. Age is positively associated with increased independent mobility and Hispanic children experience greater restrictions on independent mobility.

Conclusions:

Interventions aimed at increasing physical activity among children through greater independent mobility should include neighborhood-level efforts to grow social cohesion and trust.

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Stephanie L. Silveira, Jessica F. Baird, and Robert W. Motl

-through-micro-level variables as influences of behavior and behavior change ( Bronfenbrenner, 1979 ). Such a SEM and SCT framework would suggest hierarchical associations among built environment, social environment, and individual-level variables that distinctly influence physical activity behavior. There has been interest in

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Brennan Petersen, Mark Eys, Kody Watson, and M. Blair Evans

physical activity motivation in sport programs ( Côté, Turnnidge, & Evans, 2014 ). Given the prevalence of group contexts in sport and the importance of the social environment for motivating youth 1 participants, understanding and enhancing group dynamics is critical to facilitate youths’ participation in

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Michael P. Sheldrick, Clover Maitland, Kelly A. Mackintosh, Michael Rosenberg, Lucy J. Griffiths, Richard Fry, and Gareth Stratton

” cluster). Cluster 3 combined low importance assigned to their child watching TV/movies and playing electronic games/computer for fun by parent with the presence of a screen-time rule (“positive screen-time social environment” cluster). Cluster 4 included high parental preference for PA activities at home

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Inacio Crochemore Mohnsam da Silva, Mario Renato Azevedo, and Helen Gonçalves

Objective:

To explore the association between family and friends’ social support and leisure-time physical activity (PA) in adults.

Methods:

Cross-sectional population-based study, conducted in Pelotas, Brazil. Leisure-time PA was measured with the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Those who reported PA practice ≥ 150 minutes on the week before the interview were considered active. Social support was evaluated through the Social Support Scale for PA and classified according to the type of PA. For analyzing the association between social support and PA, Poisson regression model was used. Analyses were stratified by sex and interactions with socioeconomic level and age were explored.

Results:

Men and women who received social support from family and friends simultaneously were about 3 times more active than their counterparts. Friends’ social support presented, in all analyses, stronger associations with PA than family support. Interactions with socioeconomic level and age were observed.

Conclusion:

Interventions targeting individuals and their social environment are likely to have greater effectiveness than those targeted on one of these aspects only.

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Hayley E. Christian, Charlotte D. Klinker, Karen Villanueva, Matthew W. Knuiman, Sarah A. Foster, Stephan R. Zubrick, Mark Divitini, Lisa Wood, and Billie Giles-Corti

Background:

Relationships between context-specific measures of the physical and social environment and children’s independent mobility to neighborhood destination types were examined.

Methods:

Parents in RESIDE’s fourth survey reported whether their child (8–15 years; n = 181) was allowed to travel without an adult to school, friend’s house, park and local shop. Objective physical environment measures were matched to each of these destinations. Social environment measures included neighborhood perceptions and items specific to local independent mobility.

Results:

Independent mobility to local destinations ranged from 30% to 48%. Independent mobility to a local park was less likely as the distance to the closest park (small and large size) increased and less likely with additional school grounds (P < .05). Independent mobility to school was less likely as the distance to the closest large park increased and if the neighborhood was perceived as unsafe (P < .05). Independent mobility to a park or shops decreased if parenting social norms were unsupportive of children’s local independent movement (P < .05).

Conclusions:

Independent mobility appears dependent upon the specific destination being visited and the impact of neighborhood features varies according to the destination examined. Findings highlight the importance of access to different types and sizes of urban green space for children’s independent mobility to parks.

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Venurs H.Y. Loh, Jerome N. Rachele, Wendy J. Brown, Fatima Ghani, and Gavin Turrell

, we test the proposition that neighborhood inequalities in physical function may be due in part to disadvantaged neighborhoods having a social environment perceived by its residents as unsafe from crime, resulting in lower levels of walking for recreation (WfR) in these areas. Consistent with the