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Andrew M. Colombo-Dougovito and Jihyun Lee

potential for modified use in a physical activity (PA) space ( Colombo-Dougovito, 2015 ), have not been designed or validated for these PA settings. Furthermore, multiple definitions of social skills are used interchangeably to describe an individual’s overall social functioning ( Cordier et al., 2015

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Timothy LaVigne, Betsy Hoza, Alan L. Smith, Erin K. Shoulberg, and William Bukowski

We examined the relation between physical fitness and psychological well-being in children ages 10–14 years (N = 222), and the potential moderation of this relation by sex. Participants completed a physical fitness assessment comprised of seven tasks and a diverse set of self-report well-being measures assessing depressive symptoms, loneliness, and competence. Peers reported on social status and teachers rated adaptive functioning, internalizing symptoms, and externalizing symptoms. Multiple regression analyses indicated a significant association between physical fitness and psychological well-being for both boys and girls. Higher levels of physical fitness were associated with lower levels of peer dyadic loneliness and fewer depressive symptoms; greater cognitive, social, and athletic competence; greater feelings of self-worth; and better teacher reports of adaptive functioning. An interaction between internalizing and sex indicated a significant and negative association between physical fitness and internalizing symptoms for males only. No other moderation effects by sex were observed. Results suggest that physical fitness is associated with a range of well-being indicators for both boys and girls in this age group.

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David Geard, Amanda L. Rebar, Peter Reaburn, and Rylee A. Dionigi

the physical, psychological, cognitive, and social functioning domains ( Bowling, 2007 ; Cosco et al., 2014b ; Depp & Jeste, 2006 ; Peel et al., 2004 ; Phelan et al., 2004 ). Indeed, both original research ( Cosco, Stephan, & Brayne, 2014 ; von Faber et al., 2001 ) and review material ( Cheng

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David Geard, Peter R.J. Reaburn, Amanda L. Rebar, and Rylee A. Dionigi

athletes’ high physical and physiological functioning ( Cooper et al., 2007 ; Hawkins et al., 2003 ; Louis et al., 2012 ), yet it does not consider the psychological, cognitive, and social functioning domains. However, research shows that generalized physical activity, structured exercise ( Bertera, 2003

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Changwook Kim, Jinwon Kim, and Brijesh Thapa

life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community.” 3 Therefore, mental well-being could be regarded as a state of experience that integrates positive emotional, psychological, and social functioning. 4 According to the activity theory of aging

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Kenneth C. Lam and Jessica G. Markbreiter

 = 86.7 [13.6], NO-HIS = 92.2 [8.2]); school functioning (HIS = 89.3 [12.4], NO-HIS = 94.3 [8.9]); and social functioning (HIS = 80.6 [14.7], NO-HIS = 86.8 [12.2]) scores (Table  2 ). There was no main effect of injury history reported for the PedsQL emotional functioning subscale (HIS = 85.7 [17.7], NO

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Ashley N. Marshall, Alison R. Snyder Valier, Aubrey Yanda, and Kenneth C. Lam

general musculoskeletal 31 , 34 injuries are associated with lower HRQOL related to physical, emotional, mental, and social functioning. Findings in military cadets, 27 college athletes, 32 and adolescent athletes 33 suggest that individuals with previous history of knee injuries report deficits in

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Bruce H. Miles

Competitive opportunities for handicapped or disabled athletes are burgeoning. Different populations have different capabilities. Moderately (MO-MR) and mildly mentally retarded (MI-MR) athletes have unique abilities, and many physical educators, teachers, and volunteers spend countless hours preparing individuals and teams for tournaments and competitions. Two models are presented to assist in assessing MO-MR and MI-MR athletes’ abilities and levels of social functioning. Additionally a hierarchy of motor performance environments is presented. Discussion entails proper placement of athletes in a motor performance environment after ability and social functioning assessments have been completed.

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Rachel E. Blacklock, Ryan E. Rhodes, and Shane G. Brown

Background:

The current physical activity (PA) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) literature warrants further investigation with general population samples. The exploratory-focused purpose of this study was to compare total PA-HRQoL and walking-HRQoL relations, include a measure of general happiness, and to evaluate potential activity-HRQoL demographic moderators.

Methods:

A random sample of 351 adults completed an adapted Godin Leisure Time Questionnaire, the SF-36, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale.

Results:

Partial correlations revealed small-to-moderate associations between walking/total PA and general health, vitality, and social functioning after controlling for key demographics (P < 0.05). A dependent t-test determined walking and PA as equally related to vitality and social functioning. Multiple regression revealed annual income as a moderator of the total PA/walking-social functioning relationship [F(3,315) = 9.71 and F(3,316) = 12.03, P < 0.01, respectively].

Conclusions:

HRQoL may be considered with walking interventions and annual income. The contribution of PA to overall happiness appears to be minor.

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Cheryl Der Ananian, Sara Wilcox, Ken Watkins, Ruth P. Saunders, and Alexandra E. Evans

Most people with arthritis are not regularly active. Understanding what factors influence exercise is essential for designing programs to increase participation. The objective of this study was to examine the correlates of exercise in people with arthritis. Using a cross-sectional design, sociodemographic, health-related, and psychosocial variables were collected from community-dwelling individuals with arthritis (N = 141). Associations with exercise level were examined with bivariate statistics (ANOVAs, chi-squares) and logistic-regression analyses. Exercisers were less likely than nonexercisers and insufficiently active people to report that arthritis negatively affected their physical and social functioning, and they reported more positive affect and greater self-efficacy (p < .05). Exercisers also reported less pain than nonexercisers (p < .05). In multiple logistic-regression analyses, self-efficacy and physical limitations remained independent predictors of exercise. The results suggest the need to target exercise self-efficacy when designing exercise interventions. Results also suggest the need to tailor exercise programs to individuals’ physical limitations.