. The components of social interaction and competition in exergames may further leverage the effects on motivation and attitude. For instance, numerous studies have suggested that participating with others can improve both attitude and adherence to exercise ( Carron, Hausenblas, & Mack, 1996
Jinhui Li, Chen Li, Bing Xun Chia, Xinran Chen, Tan Phat Pham, and Yin-Leng Theng
Laurie L. Schmidt, Shanthi Johnson, M. Rebecca Genoe, Bonnie Jeffery, and Jennifer Crawford
interaction, including improved psychological well-being, reduced stress, reduced heart attack risks, and enhanced immune system functioning ( Chang et al., 2014 ; Douglas et al., 2017 ). Social interaction also decreases with age, particularly after age 75 years, leaving older adults more vulnerable to
Kazuhiro Harada, Kouhei Masumoto, Ai Fukuzawa, Michiko Touyama, Koji Sato, Narihiko Kondo, and Shuichi Okada
than can walking alone ( McAuley, Blissmer, Katula, & Duncan, 2000 ), and that people feel more exhaustion while walking alone than when they walk with a friend ( Johansson et al., 2011 ). However, as Masumoto et al. ( 2017 ) showed that the levels of social interaction among older adults during the
Wendell C. Taylor
the article. Table 1 Understanding Variations in the Health Consequences of Sedentary Behavior: A Taxonomy of Social Interaction, Novelty, Choice, and Cognition Sedentary behaviors* Cognitively engaging low/moderate/high Socially engaging low/moderate/high Novelty engaging low/moderate/high Choice low
Annelies Knoppers, Barbara Bedker Meyer, Martha E. Ewing, and Linda Forrest
Data from 947 Division I college coaches in the United States were used to examine three hypotheses concerning the impact of gender ratio on the frequency of social interaction between women and men coaches. These hypotheses were based on (a) the structural perspective characterized by the politics of optimism, (b) the institutional approach associated with the politics of pessimism, and (c) the common consciousness or subculture perspective represented by the politics of transcendence. Most support was shown for the politics of pessimism, which contends that an increase of women in a male-dominated occupation is associated with rising gender boundaries and sex segregation. Results are explored in the context of gendered homosociality.
Marcella A. Raney, Abbie L. Bowers, and Amanda L. Rissberger
. Measurements were taken at the control and experimental locations on the same days for all study phases. Data collected during the first 3 phases is summarized in Raney et al. 22 Population-based and individual PA and social interactions were assessed with 2 validated observation tools throughout the 20
J. D. DeFreese and Alan L. Smith
Social support and negative social interactions have implications for athlete psychological health, with potential to influence the links of stress-related experiences with burnout and well-being over time. Using a longitudinal design, perceived social support and negative social interactions were examined as potential moderators of the temporal stress–burnout and burnout–well-being relationships. American collegiate athletes (N = 465) completed reliable and valid online assessments of study variables at four time points during the competitive season. After controlling for dispositional and conceptually important variables, social support and negative social interactions did not moderate the stress–burnout or burnout–well-being relationships, respectively, but did simultaneously contribute to burnout and well-being across the competitive season. The results showcase the importance of sport-related social perceptions to athlete psychological outcomes over time and inform development of socially driven interventions to improve the psychological health of competitive athletes.
Stephen C. Anderson and Lawrence R. Allen
A 9-week leisure education program to increase activity involvement and social interaction of institutionalized mentally retarded adults was investigated. A disproportional stratified (by residential unit) random sampling technique was employed to select 40 subjects from a total population of 243 mentally retarded persons. Subjects were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. The hypotheses were that there would be no significant increase in activity involvement or social interaction of the subjects who participated in the treatment. Four ANCOVAs were conducted utilizing frequency and duration as the dependent variables for both social interaction and activity involvement. Length of institutionalization was the covariate. The grouping variables were treatment/control and level of retardation. The findings revealed the treatment had a significant effect only on frequency of activity involvement.
Julie A. Titus and E. Jane Watkinson
This study examined the behavior of moderately mentally handicapped children in integrated and segregated programs. Seven subjects 5 to 10 years of age were observed during free play in two programs, one integrated and one segregated, to determine if they would benefit from placement in physical activity programs with nonhandicapped children. Socialization and activity participation were examined using a simple eight-category instrument on videotaped data. The presence or absence of play vehicles was also investigated to determine whether this play equipment would further affect behavior. Some 300 minutes of videotaped data were available for each subject. Behavior durations were recorded using an OS-3 Event Recorder. Inter-observer agreements were calculated on 15% of the data, with mean agreements of .96. Duration data were transformed to percentage of observable time for each subject in integrated and segregated settings, and when play vehicles were and were not available. Results from the study generally did not support the assumption that exposure to integrated programs will increase activity participation and social interaction. Activity participation did not appear to be affected by the presence of play vehicles in the environment. Social interaction levels were reduced significantly under this condition.
Seunghwan Lee, Hyun Jae Lee, Won Jae Seo, and Chris Green
The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable, valid instrument of the sensory experiences of sport attendees. The initial scale development study (N = 263) identified 22-items to represent five dimensions of the sensoryscape. The Sensoryscape scale was confirmed as a reliable scale using CFA. SEM was used in a study of scale validity. The sensoryscape, social interaction, and sense of home each had a positive, direct impact on fans’ satisfaction for both major (N = 259) and minor (N = 218) league venues. Satisfaction with the stadium experience, in turn, had a positive, direct impact on intention to revisit. Similar models were confirmed for both contexts; however the magnitude of effects varied. Implications for sport marketing practice and future research are discussed.