, & Roberts, 2006 ), perceived psychological stress and social perceptions ( DeFreese & Smith, 2014 ), as well as perfectionistic concerns ( Madigan, Stoeber, & Passfield, 2015 ). Such work has pushed the conceptual knowledge base on burnout understanding by providing time-based support for theoretically
J.D. DeFreese and Alan L. Smith
Harvey R. Freeman
Engaging in bodybuilding, especially by a woman, may have a pervasive influence on the impressions others have of the bodybuilder. The first experiment examined the effects of the label bodybuilder on subjects' ratings of the probability that the stimulus person possessed gender-related characteristics. The second experiment was designed to determine whether female bodybuilders, compared to attractive and unattractive female nonbodybuilders, are (a) assumed to possess less socially desirable personality traits, (b) expected to lead less successful lives, and (c) viewed as less physically attractive. Results indicate that bodybuilding information plays a dominant role in influencing judgments. Stimulus persons who engage in bodybuilding are judged to be more likely to perform masculine role behaviors and less likely to be employed in feminine occupations, irrespective of gender. Female bodybuilders are viewed as relatively unattractive and are attributed with less desirable personality traits than are attractive female nonbodybuilders. The significance of these findings in understanding the perpetuation of stereotypes is discussed.
A 3 x 4 factorial design was used to test the affects of gender, frequency of exposure, and magnitude of exposure on subjects' ratings of women bodybuilders. Dependent variables were subjects' ratings of the bodybuilders' femininity, physical attractiveness, dominance, and aggressiveness. Subjects were 76 introductory psychology students (45 female, 31 male) at a large Utah university who completed a 10-item rating scale after viewing 20 color slides of some of the world's leading women bodybuilders. A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) showed that males rated the women bodybuilders as more attractive than did females (p < .05) and that the longer they had been exposed to women bodybuilders, the higher were their attractiveness ratings for women bodybuilders (p < .05). Gender-frequency of exposure interaction effects were also statistically significant (p < .05). Males with low frequency of exposure rated the women bodybuilders as less dominant than did low-frequency females. However, high frequency-of-exposure males rated the women bodybuilders as more dominant than did high-frequency females. The study concludes with a discussion of the mere exposure hypothesis and status quo effects in an attempt to explain the results.
Anthony G. Delli Paoli, Alan L. Smith, and Matthew B. Pontifex
working memory performance was not directly impacted by social exclusion in the present study. Despite this outcome, the results show that social perceptions may be tied to working memory performance, introducing an additional conceptual pathway for social exclusion effects on working memory. Reports of
J. D. DeFreese and Alan L. Smith
Social support and negative social interactions have implications for athlete psychological health, with potential to influence the links of stress-related experiences with burnout and well-being over time. Using a longitudinal design, perceived social support and negative social interactions were examined as potential moderators of the temporal stress–burnout and burnout–well-being relationships. American collegiate athletes (N = 465) completed reliable and valid online assessments of study variables at four time points during the competitive season. After controlling for dispositional and conceptually important variables, social support and negative social interactions did not moderate the stress–burnout or burnout–well-being relationships, respectively, but did simultaneously contribute to burnout and well-being across the competitive season. The results showcase the importance of sport-related social perceptions to athlete psychological outcomes over time and inform development of socially driven interventions to improve the psychological health of competitive athletes.
Yves Chantal and Iouri Bernache-Assollant
The authors demonstrate in three experiments (N = 241) that yellow impacts on social perceptions when associated with competitive cycling. In Experiment 1, the image of a syringe evocated competitive cycling and doping more strongly when presented on yellow as compared with gray. In Experiment 2, a performance improvement scenario yielded more discredit of a depicted racer and higher suspicions of doping when ending on a yellow frame, as opposed to a gray one. In Experiment 3, the image of a racer wearing a yellow jersey (instead of a gray or a white one) yielded the lowest scores on measures of suitability as a role model and attractiveness of sport participation. Moreover, no significant differences emerged for gender, thereby suggesting equivalent effects for female and male participants. Finally, the authors discuss conceptual and practical implications as well as limitations before proposing a number of avenues for future research.
Mark T. Suffolk
The sport of competitive bodybuilding is strongly associated with muscle dysmorphia, a body-image-related psychological disorder. This theoretical article draws on existing concepts, namely stereotyping, prejudice, and positive deviance in sport, to explicate the notion that competitive bodybuilding and body-image disturbance may be mistakenly conflated. The perspective offered here goes beyond the countercultural physique to argue that a negative social perception of competitive bodybuilders obscures the pragmatic necessity to develop a hypermesomorphic physique. Competitive bodybuilders (CBs) and athletes in mainstream competitive sport exhibit congruent psychobehavioral tendencies. In a competitive-sport context, behavior among CBs perceived as pathological may primarily represent a response to the ideological sporting ethic of “win at all costs,” not extreme body-image disturbance. Analyzing the psychobehavioral characteristics of CBs within a sporting rather than a pathological framework, allows for a contextual assessment of behaviors to then determine the clinical significance relative to the research population under investigation.
This review focuses on three different processes: action priming, action prediction, and outcome evaluation. Together, these processes form a foundation for social perception early in life. Priming and prediction is argued to be separable processes with different degrees of plasticity, based in part on unique neural structures. These two future-oriented processes are assumed to operate in a sequential manner. A third set of processes, outcome evaluations, follows the completion of observed events and compare the actual events with the assumptions postulated by the preceding future-oriented processes. Together, these processes are argued to provide good grounds for learning via internal models that detect error signals that arise from the potential mismatch between priming and prediction and actual events as they unfold in the external world and use this information to update the accuracy of future-oriented processes.
Bradley J. Baker
outline of social perceptions of gaming in China and the United States. This is followed by sections on the positive (a shared sense of connection and the potential to build diverse communities) and negative (trolling and toxicity, addiction, and violent media) impacts of gaming. The chapter highlights
Ralph Appleby, Paul Davis, Louise Davis, and Henrik Gustafsson
burnout due to accumulated demands of training and the social perception of their teammates; as the season progresses athletes and coaches should aim to optimise the balance between training load, as well as physical and emotional recovery ( Kellmann, 2010 ). Coaches may also benefit from working with a