The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between team sport coaches’ power and coaching effectiveness using French and Raven’s (1959) taxonomy of power bases as a theoretical framework. Coaching effectiveness (CE) was conceptualized as an umbrella concept and four different CE outcomes were used; athletes’ satisfaction with the coach, coaches’ general influence, adaptive training behaviours, and collective efficacy. Hypotheses were made on the specific relationships between the individual power bases and the effectiveness criteria. The total sample consisted of 820 athletes (47% females), representing 56 elite and nonelite teams from three team sports (soccer, floorball, and team handball). Data were analysed separately for adults and youths. Structural equations modelling showed that 30% (in the youth sample) and 55% (in the adult sample) of the proposed hypotheses was supported. Overall, coaches’ bases of power were strongly associated with coaching effectiveness, explaining between 13% and 59% of variance in the effectiveness outcomes used. Expert power was consistently positively related to coaching effectiveness; reward and coercive power had mixed relationships (positively, negatively, unrelated) as had legitimate power (negatively, unrelated) and reward power (positively, unrelated). The results are discussed in relation to coaching effectiveness, limitations, practical implications and future research.
Dominic Malcolm, Claudia Pinheiro, and Nuno Pimenta
This paper provides sociological reflections on the professionalization of sport coaching and the attempts of sport coaches to attain such a status. It explicates existing sociological analyses of the professions, highlighting and critiquing the so-called “trait” approach which currently dominates discussions of the professionalization of sport coaching. It subsequently suggests that the “power approach” to professions, as epitomized by the work of Johnson, Larson and Abbott, provides a more realistic depiction of professionalization, alerting us to the conflictual and exclusionary aspects endemic in such a process. Finally the paper explores some twenty-first century trends towards the declining influence and social power of professional groups, and the specific characteristics and social standing of sport coaching which will serve to constrain sport coaches from achieving the goal of professional status. This analysis leads us to question whether professionalization should be viewed as an inherently “positive” development, and whether professionalization is a realistic goal for an occupational group such as sport coaching.
Michael L. Silk and David L. Andrews
Within this paper we offer what is hopefully both a suggestive (as opposed to definitive) and generative (as opposed to suppressive) signposting of the ontological, epistemological, and methodological boundaries framing the putative intellectual project that is Physical Cultural Studies (PCS). Ground in a commitment toward engaging varied dimensions or expressions of active physicality, we deliberate on an understanding of, and approach to, the corporeal practices, discourses, and subjectivities through which active bodies become organized, represented, and experienced in relation to the operations of social power. Further, drawing on Toby Miller, we suggest that this approach requires a motivation toward progressive social change. We consider the political and axiological contingencies of PCS, how it is differentiated from the “sociology of sport,” and how we may produce the type of knowledge that is able to intervene into the broader social world and make a difference. We are sure many will disagree—perhaps with good reason—with our assumptions. Indeed, such differences are welcomed for we feel that there is greater progressive potential in a field in tension, in healthy contestation, and, in which debates surrounding ontology, epistemology, political intent, method, interpretation, expression, and impact flow freely.
John Williams and Shane Pill
being “face-to-face” or distant and anonymous. Figurations vary in size from small scale, such as a group of HPE teachers in a school, to those existing on a global scale. However, all figurations are characterized by social power differentials ( Elias, 1998b ) which, like figurations , change over time
Donna L. Goodwin and Janice Causgrove Dunn
classifications of interdisciplinarity. Instrumental interdisciplinarity occurs when scholars utilize or borrow ideas from another discipline to enhance problem solving in their home disciplines ( Slater & Hearn, 1996 ). Conceptual interdisciplinarity examines assumptions of institutional and social power
Kevin S. Spink and Kayla Fesser
: Extending the athlete leadership classification within sport teams . Journal of Sports Sciences, 32 ( 14 ), 1389 – 1397 . doi:10.1080/02640414.2014.891291 10.1080/02640414.2014.891291 French , J.R. , & Raven , B. ( 1959 ). The bases of social power . In D. Cartwright (Ed.), Studies in social
Rikishi T. Rey, Gregory A. Cranmer, Blair Browning, and Jimmy Sanderson
– 662 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2007.08.003 10.1016/j.psychsport.2007.08.003 French , J.R.P. , & Raven , B. ( 1959 ). The bases for social power . In D. Cartwright (Ed.), Studies in social power (pp. 150 – 167 ). University of Michigan Press . Frisby , B.N. , & Martin , M
Shane Pill, Brendon Hyndman, Brendan SueSee, and John Williams
social power relationships, by other people present in the figurations that they assume. Where people in a given figuration share the same dispositions, such as traditional views of PE, for example, Elias ( 1994 ) terms this as social habitus. Concerning involvement and detachment, Elias and Dunning
Annelies Knoppers, Fiona McLachlan, Ramón Spaaij, and Froukje Smits
, primarily focus on practices. Various scholars have argued that the categorization of employees into identities has meant that dominant organizational practices that (re)produce the “usual” ingrained ways of doing gender and other social power relations that result in exclusion may often be overlooked in
Niels B. Feddersen, Robert Morris, Louise K. Storm, Martin A. Littlewood, and David J. Richardson
. ( 2001 ). Fearless Speech ( J. Pearson, Ed.). Princeton, NJ: Semiotext(e) . French , J.R.P. , & Raven , B. ( 1959 ). The bases of social power . In D. Cartwright (Ed.), Studies in social power (pp. 150 – 167 ). Ann Arbor : The University of Michigan . Frisby , W. ( 2005 ). The good