which is a controlled-group design ( Barker et al., 2011 ). Also, the design allows for the collection of quantitative (e.g., self-report questionnaires) and qualitative (e.g., social validation) data across multiple time points. SCEDs are also advantageous because they permit the investigation of, and
The Effects of a Brief Online Rational-Emotive-Behavioral-Therapy Program on Coach Irrational Beliefs and Well-Being
Ryan G. Bailey and Martin J. Turner
Encouraging Togetherness During a National Lockdown: The Influence of Relationship-Oriented Personal-Disclosure Mutual-Sharing on Team Functioning in Academy Soccer Coaches
Harry K. Warburton and Matthew J. Slater
researchers with no prior connection to the team within Dunn and Holt’s ( 2004 ) seminal study, revealed participants still harbored positive feelings about their PDMS experience 3 years after the intervention. Furthermore, ROPDMS research has supported such positive trends via social validation results that
Consulting on Tour: A Dual-Phase Personal-Disclosure Mutual-Sharing Intervention and Group Functioning in Elite Youth Cricket
Jamie B. Barker, Andrew L. Evans, Pete Coffee, Matt J. Slater, and Paul J. McCarthy
In a one group pretest-posttest design, 15 elite academy cricketers were exposed to two personal-disclosure mutual-sharing (PDMS) sessions during a preseason tour. Within PDMS1, athletes disclosed (via prepared speeches) relationship-oriented information and within PDMS2, mastery oriented information. Social identity, social identity content, and collective efficacy were measured at baseline (1 week before the tour), post-PDMS1, midpoint, and post-PDMS2, while social validation was also obtained after each intervention session. Quantitative data revealed significant increases in social identity and friendships identity content at post-PDMS1, and results identity content and collective efficacy at post-PDMS2. Qualitative social validation data highlighted the thoughts and feelings of the athletes before their speeches and supported the effectiveness of the PDMS sessions. In sum, the data suggest practitioners can develop team outcomes (e.g., a focus on results) through developing specific aspects of teams’ identities. Study limitations, practitioner guidelines, and areas for future research are discussed.
The Effect of Mindfulness Training on Attention and Performance in National-Level Swimmers: An Exploratory Investigation
Nick Mardon, Hugh Richards, and Amanda Martindale
This quasi-experimental intervention study investigated the impact of mindfulness training on attention and performance in swimmers. Following an 8-week intervention with six national-level university swimmers (M = 20 years), single case analysis of pre- and post- measurements for three of six participants showed large improvements in mindfulness and attention efficiency. Two participants showed a small increase in one of mindfulness or attention efficiency, and one showed no changes. Four participants improved performance times compared with season-best, and five participants improved self-rated performance. Athletes and coach positively evaluated mindfulness training. This study, with strong ecological validity, shows improvements in mindfulness, attention, and performance, consistent with theory that proposes attention as a mechanism for mindfulness based performance changes. Mindfulness training can be an effective and practical intervention. Further applied research is required utilizing designs to determine causality and further test the proposed mechanisms through which mindfulness may influence performance.
Using Personal-Disclosure Mutual-Sharing to Enhance Group Functioning in a Professional Soccer Academy
Andrew L. Evans, Matthew J. Slater, Martin J. Turner, and Jamie B. Barker
The present study examined the effects of personal-disclosure mutual-sharing (PDMS) on a diverse set of group factors in a previously unexplored context. During a single bout of PDMS, 14 soccer-academy athletes voluntarily disclosed unknown personal stories to fellow teammates. Social identity, friendships identity content, results identity content, and collective efficacy were measured at baseline, post-PDMS, follow-up, and maintenance phases. In addition, team performance over the competitive season was assessed via goal difference and goal discrepancy. Data indicated that a short-term significant increase in friendships identity content and a sustained improvement in team performance occurred after the PDMS session, and social identity, results identity content, and collective efficacy remained elevated across all intervention phases. Data suggest that PDMS fosters immediate increases in aspects of team functioning that may exert a positive influence upon team performance. Future research would benefit from ascertaining the exact mechanisms in which PDMS encourages changes in team outcomes observed within the current study.
Consultancy Under Pressure: Intervening in the “Here and Now” With an Elite Golfer
John Pates and Kieran Kingston
effect; social validation for this effect was provided by the client. The utility of transpersonal intervention strategies such as hypnosis and music appeared to be positive. In addition, this case study provides validation for using best-performance imagery and interventions that focus attention on task
Effects of a Mental Training Package on an Endurance Performance
Thomas D. Patrick and Dennis W. Hrycaiko
This study aimed to examine the effects of a mental training package on the performance of a 1600-m run. Participants were 3 male triathletes and 1 male elite runner. A single-subject multiple baseline across individuals design was employed to evaluate the treatment package. Results demonstrated that the mental training package was effective in improving the running performance of the three participants who received intervention. Social validation results were favorable and indicated that participants enjoyed using the mental training package and were pleased with the results. Further, coaches felt that the results were important, especially those for the elite track athlete.
“Older and Faster”: Exploring Elite Masters Cyclists’ Involvement in Competitive Sport
Karen M. Appleby and Kristen Dieffenbach
The purpose of this study was to investigate elite masters cyclists’ involvement in competitive sport. Using a descriptive, qualitative approach, the researchers interviewed ten elite-level masters cyclists. Data analysis revealed the following salient themes relevant to participants’ experiences: (a) athletic identity, (b) motivational factors, and (c) life balance. These findings suggest that participation as an elite-level masters athlete reflects a high degree of continuity for athletic identity that can be positive in relation to self-esteem and social validation and challenging in relation to transition and maintaining social relationships out of cycling settings.
A Self-Monitoring Feedback Package for Improving Freestyle Figure Skating Practice
K. Michelle Hume, Garry L. Martin, Patricia Gonzalez, Clayton Cracklen, and Sheldon Genthon
Behavioral coaching techniques consisting of instructions, a self-monitoring checklist, and coach feedback were examined at freestyle practice sessions with three female prenovice figure skaters. These techniques were compared to normal coaching procedures for their effects on the frequency of jumps and spins performed, the number of times a skater practiced a routine to music, and the amount of time spent engaging in off-task behaviors during 45-min free-skating sessions. Within a reversal-replication design, the behavioral coaching techniques produced considerable improvement on all dependent measures. Social validation measures indicated that the procedures improved quality of skating and were rated positively by the coach and by two of the three skaters.
‘Think Aloud’: Toward a Framework To Facilitate Reflective Practice Amongst Rugby League Coaches
Amy Elizabeth Whitehead, Brendan Cropley, Tabo Huntley, Andy Miles, Laura Quayle, and Zoe Knowles
This study aimed to design, implement and evaluate a protocol encompassing Think Aloud (TA) as a technique to facilitate reflection-in-action and delayed reflection-on-action to aid coach learning. Six British, male rugby league coaches, who reported little previous exposure to reflective practice, consented to participate. Participants were: (a) instructed on how to engage in TA; (b) observed in practice using TA; (c) provided with individual support on delayed reflective practice on their first coaching session and use of TA; (d) observed in practice using TA a second time; and (e) engaged in a social validation interview regarding their experiences of TA. Analysis of in-action verbalizations revealed a shift from descriptive verbalizations to a deeper level of reflection. Both immediate and post eight week social validation interviews revealed that coaches developed an increased awareness, enhanced communication, and pedagogical development. The participants also recommended that TA can be a valuable tool for: (a) collecting in-event data during a coaching session; and (b) developing and evidencing reflection for coaches. Future recommendations were also provided by the participants and consequently, this study offers a unique technique to reflective practice that has the potential to meet the learning development needs of coaches.