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Brennan K. Berg, Yuhei Inoue, Matthew T. Bowers, and Packianathan Chelladurai

developed and promoted ( Inoue, Berg, et al., 2015 ). As one might expect, active participation in sport has been more frequently linked with population health to understand how it can benefit physical, mental, and social well-being (e.g.,  Berg et al., 2015 ; Rowe et al., 2013 ). However, sport

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Jolanthe de Koning, Suzanne Richards, and Afroditi Stathi

This cross-sectional, observational study examined whether objectively measured physical activity (PA) and specific activities are associated with loneliness and social isolation (SI) in rural-living older adults. A total of 112 participants (M age = 72.8 [SD = 6.6], 51.8% female) from 23 villages in Wiltshire, United Kingdom, completed questionnaires, 7-day accelerometry, and activity diaries. Regression analysis was used to test associations between objectively measured light PA, moderate to vigorous PA, and total PA; loneliness; and SI from family, neighbors, or friends and to explore these associations using specific activities. Daily mean light, moderate to vigorous, and total PA were not associated with loneliness or SI. Volunteering, accompanying others, and sports/exercise were associated with lower SI from neighbors (odds ratio = 0.23, 95% CI [0.06, 0.91]), family (odds ratio = 0.39, 95% CI [0.22, 0.68]), and friends (odds ratio = 0.56, 95% CI [0.33, 0.97]), respectively. There were no associations between loneliness, SI, and objectively measured PA. The contribution of PA to loneliness and SI needs to be further investigated with larger and diverse samples of rural-living older adults.

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David P. Schary and Carolina Lundqvist

eudaimonic perspective has two common conceptualizations: psychological and social well-being. Psychological well-being is the most widely used in the literature, examining one’s ability to thrive and act functionally amid life’s challenges (e.g., pursuing meaningful goals, developing as a person; Ryff

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Athanasios G. Papaioannou

Based on recent trends in positive psychology, on ancient Greek sport literature and particularly on Aristotle’s philosophy, the holistic, harmonious and internal motivational components of excellence and their implications for students’ motivation for physical activity, health and well-being are presented. While modern motivational theories and research have partly addressed the holistic and internal motivational components of excellence, they have yet to address its harmonious part. In this article it is explained why all three components of excellence are required to promote eudaimonic well-being, which is the ultimate aim of Olympism. It is argued also that the conceptualization of hedonic-eudaimonic well-being should be primarily based on the “me” versus “us” meaning. While current physical activity experiences more often reflect a hedonistic perspective, to promote health and well-being for all, an eudaimonic perspective in teaching in physical education and youth sport is needed. This should primarily focus on the promotion of Olympic ideals, such as excellence, friendship, and respect. These three ideals and well-being are all very much interconnected, when all three components of excellence exist in excess. To promote excellence, Olympic ideals, and well-being, the core ideas of an educational philosophy promoting excellence in physical education and youth sport are presented.

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Jolan Kegelaers, Paul Wylleman, I. (Belle) N.A. van Bree, Francesco Wessels, and Raôul R.D. Oudejans

health framework, including positive indicators of psychological and social well-being, in addition to symptoms of mental disorders. Such an approach is more in line with recent conceptualizations of mental health ( World Health Organization, 2013 ). The relationship between experienced stressors and

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Kathleen E. Miller and Joseph H. Hoffman

Past research has linked physical activity and sports participation with improved mental and social well-being, including reduced risk of depression and suicidality. In this study we examined relationships among several dimensions of athletic involvement (team sport participation, individual sport participation, athlete identity, and jock identity), gender, and depression and suicidal behavior in a sample of 791 undergraduate students. Both participation in a team sport and athlete identity were associated with lower depression scores. Athlete identity was also associated with lower odds of a past-year suicide attempt, whereas jock identity was associated with elevated odds of a suicide attempt. The findings are discussed in light of the relationship between mental well-being and a larger constellation of health-risk behaviors linked to a “toxic jock” identity.

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Carolina Lundqvist and Fredrik Sandin

This study examined subjective (SWB), psychological (PWB) and social well-being (Social WB) at a global and sport contextual level among ten elite orienteers (6 women and 4 men, median age = 20.4, range 18–30) by employing semistructured interviews. Athletes described SWB as an interplay of satisfaction with life, sport experiences and perceived health combined with experienced enjoyment and happiness in both ordinary life and sport. SWB and PWB interacted, and important psychological functioning among the elite athletes included, among other things, abilities to adopt value-driven behaviors, be part of functional relationships, and to self-regulate one’s autonomy. The ability to organize and combine ordinary life with elite sport, and the use of strategies to protect the self during setbacks was also emphasized. For a comprehensive theoretical understanding of well-being applicable to elite athletes, the need for a holistic view considering both global and sport-specific aspects of WB is discussed.

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Aphrodite Stathi, Kenneth R. Fox, and James McKenna

Using a qualitative approach, the dimensions of subjective well-being of active older adults were outlined and ways identified through which they might be influenced by participation in physical activities. One-to-one and group interviews were used to collect the data. Using cross-case analysis, 17 main themes were identified. The following main dimensions emerged: developmental, material, physical, mental, and social well-being. The findings indicated that physical activity influences all dimensions of the subjective well-being of older adults, with the exception of material well-being. Physical activity appears to contribute to the mental health of older adults through maintenance of a busy and active life, mental alertness, positive attitude toward life and avoidance of stress, negative function, and isolation. The complexity of subjective well-being and the multiple roles of physical activity stress the need to extend qualitative research to sedentary older adults and the institutionalized elderly to explore the relationship between well-being and physical activity in later life.

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Sarah K. Sifers and Dana N. Shea

Girls on Track (GOTR/T) is a program focused on improving pre-teen (Girls on the Run) and young teen (Girls on Track) girls’ self-esteem and fostering a healthy lifestyle through running and all-inclusive development. The GOTR/T curriculum attempts to foster physical, psychological, and social well-being through education, team building, and physical activity. Participants in the present GOTR/T study (N = 111 girls, ages 8 to 13) completed the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System, Children’s Body Image Scale, Self-perception Profile for Children, and a measure of attitudes toward physical activity at the start of the program and at the conclusion. Guardians completed a consumer satisfaction survey. Self-perceptions of physical appearance and average size of ideal body image increased. Discrepancy between perceived real and ideal body image decreased. Guardian satisfaction with the program was high. Results suggest GOTR/T may help improve self-esteem in relation to physical appearance and body image. Improvements in other domains were not found, and the program did not improve behavioral and emotional functioning.

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Dana M. Litt, Ronald J. Iannotti, and Jing Wang

Background:

Motivating adolescents to maintain levels of physical activity (PA) is important because regular PA in adolescence contributes to physical, psychological, and social well-being and PA during adolescence has been associated with activity levels in adulthood.

Purpose:

The overall aim of this study is to validate a measure of external reward, health values, and personal interest motivations for adolescent PA developed by Wold and Kannas and to examine the relationship between these motivations and level of PA.

Methods:

A nationally representative sample of 9011 adolescents completed the Health Behavior in School-aged Children survey instrument. Ten items were used to measure PA motivations. Multiple group confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were applied to test the 3-factor structure of the motivation scale and to examine the relationship between the 3 motivations and PA.

Results:

The Wold and Kannas’s motivation measure assessed external, social, and health motivations which predicted PA in adolescents.

Conclusions:

The Wold and Kannas’s motivation measure is suitable for assessing motivations for PA in US adolescents and may contribute to both theoretical and intervention studies that address this public health need.