as interrater agreement in a study conducted by an external evaluation partner ( Teaching Strategies, 2011 ). There are nine items in the social–emotional development scale (e.g., regulates own emotions and behaviors); 11 in the Physical Development scale (e.g., demonstrates gross-motor manipulative
Paul M. Wright, Lauriece L. Zittel, Tawanda Gipson and Crystal Williams
Maureen R. Weiss, Vicki Ebbeck and Diane M. Wiese-Bjornstal
Visual demonstrations have long been regarded as a critical instructional method for children’s motor skill and social-emotional development. Despite their widespread importance, skill demonstrations have often been characterized by a failure to consider age related differences in children’s cognitive and physical abilities. Similarly, the potential psychological effects of modeling on children’s behaviors in the physical domain have rarely been discussed. Thus the purpose of this paper is to review theoretical and research perspectives from the motor behavior and psychology literatures about developmental and psychological factors associated with children’s modeling of motor skills. Specifically, this paper will emphasize (a) how children perceive characteristics of a visual demonstration, (b) how they translate perceptions to actions that attempt to match the skill demonstration, and (c) how observational learning can be used to enhance self-confidence and motivation in youth. Practical implications for maximizing motor skill and psychosocial development in children are addressed in each section of the paper.
Collin A. Webster, Judith E. Rink, Russell L. Carson, Jongho Moon and Karen Lux Gaudreault
other goals and priorities deserves increased attention. If schools use PA to accomplish other objectives (e.g., academic outcomes in other subject areas, mental health, and social-emotional development), is this still within the scope of a CSPAP? In one of the first case studies of a CSPAP, the
Risto Marttinen, Mara Simon, Sharon Phillips and Ray N. Fredrick III
neighborhood parks . Journal of Urban Health, 95 ( 5 ), 739 – 749 . PubMed ID: 29916006 doi: 10.1007/s11524-018-0278-y Wade , C. ( 2015 ). The longitudinal effects of after-school program experiences, quantity, and regulatable features on children’s social-emotional development . Children and Youth