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Evie Leslie, Ester Cerin and Peter Kremer

Background:

Access to local parks can affect walking levels. Neighborhood environment and park use may influence relationships between neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and walking.

Methods:

Self-report data on perceived park features, neighborhood environment, park use, neighborhood walking and sociodemographics were obtained from a sample of Australian adults, living in high/low SES areas. Surveys were mailed to 250 randomly selected households within 500m of 12 matched parks. Mediating effects of perceived environment attributes and park use on relationships between area-SES and walking were examined.

Results:

Mean frequency of local park use was higher for high-SES residents (4.36 vs 3.16 times/wk, P < .01), who also reported higher levels of park safety, maintenance, attractiveness, opportunities for socialization, and neighborhood crime safety, aesthetics, and traffic safety. Safety and opportunity for socialization were independently positively related to monthly frequency of visits to a local park which, in turn, was positively associated with walking for recreation and total walking. Residents of higher SES areas reported an average 22% (95% CI: 5%, 37%) more weekly minutes of recreational walking than their low SES counterparts.

Conclusion:

Residents of high-SES areas live in environments that promote park use, which positively contributes to their weekly amounts of overall and recreational walking.

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Tom Perks

As is well known among sport sociologists, opportunities for sport participation are not equal across different socio-economic status (SES) groups, with research showing that adults with high SES participate in sport more than those with low SES ( Canadian Fitness & Lifestyle Research Institute

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Ingrid H.M. Steenhuis, Steffie B.C. Nooy, Machiel J.G. Moes and Albertine J. Schuit

Background:

Physical activity levels in most affluent countries are low and many people do not meet the current recommendations. Particularly for people with a low income, economic strategies seem promising to stimulate taking part in sports activities. This study investigated the importance of economic restraints for taking part in sports activities as well as perceptions of low-income people toward different pricing interventions.

Methods:

A qualitative study was conducted, using semistructured, individual interviews with 27 low-income men and women. The framework approach was used to analyze the transcripts of the interviews.

Results:

The respondents considered finances to be an important barrier for participating in sports activities, together with some individual barriers. Promising pricing strategies are a discount on the subscription to the fitness or sports club, a 1 month free trial, and free entrance to the swimming pool once a week.

Conclusions:

Pricing strategies may be a promising intervention to increase physical activity levels of low-income people. However, this study indicates that this should be coupled with an intervention directed at individual barriers. Some pricing strategies will be used and appreciated more by low-income people than other pricing strategies. In addition, pricing strategies should be tailored to individual needs and preferences.

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Lorayne Woodfield, Michael Duncan, Yahya Al-Nakeeb, Alan Nevill and Charles Jenkins

The present study examines the relationship of sex, ethnicity, and socio-economic status to physical activity levels of young people. Participants were 301 males and females (12.9 – 0.81 years). Physical activity was measured using the four by one-day physical activity recall questionnaire. ANOVA revealed that high socio-economic status children reported greater average daily energy expenditure levels than low socio-economic status children (p < .01). The daily energy expenditure of white-Caucasian children was significantly higher than black or Asian children. White boys were significantly more active than white girls, but no such sex differences were observed among black and Asian children. Although activity was always greater at weekends, a decline in activity by school year was observed on Saturdays and Sundays but with no such decline observed on weekdays.

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Karin I. Proper, Ester Cerin and Neville Owen

Background:

There is an inverse relationship between individual socio-economic status (SES) and amount of occupational physical activity. The role of the socio-economic environment is, however, less clear. This study examined the independent influences of neighborhood and individual SES on absolute and relative amount of occupational physical activity. It also examined the moderating effects of neighborhood SES on the relationship between individual SES and occupational physical activity.

Methods:

Employees (n = 1236) resident in high or low SES neighborhoods were assessed on socio-demographic factors, including educational attainment and household income, and physical activity.

Results:

Neighborhood SES and individual SES were independently inversely related to absolute and relative amount of occupational physical activity. Significant interactions between neighborhood SES and level of educational attainment in the contribution of total and vigorous occupational physical activity to total physical activity were found.

Conclusions:

Neighborhood SES can function as a moderator in the relationship between individual SES and occupational physical activity.

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Paula C. Fletcher and John P. Hirdes

This paper examines factors associated with physical activity and health status among the 796 subjects aged 55 and older who appear in both the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey (CFS) and The Campbell’s Survey on Well-Being (CSWB), a longitudinal follow-up to the CFS. The CSWB can provide information about changes in physical activity patterns and health between 1981 and 1988. Although nonresponse to the overall survey was low, item nonresponse was problematic in some cases. Approximately 50% of the sample were not assessed on physical fitness measures (e.g., body mass index), while 14% and 38% refused to answer questions concerning alcohol consumption and family income, respectively. Of specific interest are the relationships of physical activity levels and self-rated health with socio-economic status, age, gender, smoking history, alcohol consumption, and measures of body composition.

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Stuart J.H. Biddle, Sarah H. Whitehead, Toni M. O’Donovan and Mary E. Nevill

Background:

Many adolescent girls have low levels of physical activity and participation declines with age. This review identifies recent correlates of physical activity in adolescent girls.

Methods:

Systematic review of papers published 1999 to mid-2003. Papers (k = 51) reporting a measure of physical activity and at least one potential correlate of physical activity in adolescent girls were analyzed.

Results:

Demographics related to physical activity were female gender (–), non-white ethnicity (–), age (–), and socio-economic status (+). Psychological correlates positively associated with physical activity were enjoyment, perceived competence, self-efficacy, and physical self-perceptions. Behavioral correlates showed that smoking was associated with lower and organized sport involvement with greater activity. Physical activity was associated with parental and family support but we found no consistent trends for environmental variables. Effects were small-to-moderate.

Conclusions:

Modifiable correlates for adolescent girls clustered around “positive psychology,” organized sport involvement, and the family.

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Christine Delisle Nyström, Christel Larsson, Christina Alexandrou, Bettina Ehrenblad, Ulf Eriksson, Marita Friberg, Maria Hagströmer, Anna Karin Lindroos, Gisela Nyberg and Marie Löf

; 16 ( 1 ): 63 . 10.1186/s12890-016-0226-0 27117559 8. Beckvid Henriksson G , Franzen S , Elinder LS , Nyberg G . Low socio-economic status associated with unhealthy weight in six-year-old Swedish children despite higher levels of physical activity . Acta Paediatr . 2016 ; 105 ( 10

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Javier Molina-García and Ana Queralt

-6736(15)01284-2 27045735 14. D’Haese S , Van Dyck D , De Bourdeaudhuij I , Deforche B , Cardon G . The association between objective walkability, neighborhood socio-economic status, and physical activity in Belgian children . Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2014 ; 11 : 104 . doi:10.1186/s12966

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Ali Brian, Sally Taunton, Chelsee Shortt, Adam Pennell and Ryan Sacko

Start program and therefore represents a section of the population who represent only low socio-economic status. In addition, children with multiple physical disabilities were not identified in this study; thus, conclusions that may be derived from differences in disabilities may not be fully understood