With the aging of the population, an increasing sex ratio of women to men, the potential for increased disability-free life expectancy, and increasing health-care costs, health promotion and physical activity personnel engaged in research, policy, or practice need a full understanding of the physical, cultural, and social context in which consecutive age cohorts move through life. This paper integrates research information from health promotion, the physical activity sciences, social gerontology, and demography; it is divided into six sections focusing on demographic and cultural diversity, the cultural meaning of physical activity, active lifestyles, catalysts and barriers to the emergence of an active older population, and promoting lifelong active living. Employing a macro (societal) rather than a micro (individual) level of analysis, the paper emphasizes that aging is a lifelong social process leading to diverse lifestyles in middle and later adulthood, that there is considerable heterogeneity in physical and social experiences and capacities within and between age cohorts, and that aging is a women’s issue, particularly with respect to health and activity promotion.
Barry D. McPherson
Leslie K. Larsen and Christopher J. Clayton
In 2017–2018, more than 60% of NCAA Division I women’s basketball (DI WBB) players identified as women of color, while less than 17% of the head coaches of DI WBB teams identified as women of color. Larsen, Fisher, and Moret suggested differences in career pathways between black female head coaches and their white female and white and black male counterparts could be one explanation for the aforementioned discrepancy. However, there is currently limited research on the career pathways of DI WBB head coaches to support Larsen and colleagues’ hypothesis. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the career pathways of DI WBB head coaches to identify race and gender differences. To accomplish this, a content analysis was conducted on the online biographies of head coaches from all 351 DI WBB programs. Significant differences between groups were found in the number of years coaching in DI women’s basketball prior to receiving a first DI head coaching position; both white women (M = 6.97) and women of color (M = 7.94) had significantly more years in DI WBB coaching than white males (M = 4.95; F(3, 348) = 4.63, p = .003). Further, chi-square tests revealed a significant relationship between the race and gender of a coach and the highest level of playing experience and education. These results indicate that race and gender play a significant role in determining what pathway is required to obtain an DI WBB head coaching position. In addition to these research findings, practical implications are discussed.
Dana K. Voelker and Justine J. Reel
Figure skaters experience pressure associated with their sport to change their body weight, shape, or size to meet appearance and performance expectations. Figure skaters may experience different body-related expectations based on gender despite performing in identical or similar training and competition environments. In a qualitative investigation that examined body pressure experiences of male skaters, participants discussed some of their struggles, but seemed compelled to discuss, unexpectedly, the plight of female skaters in facing the skating body ideal. The present findings represent an exploratory analysis of qualitative data elucidating the body pressure experiences of female skaters through the eyes of male skaters. Participants were 13 competitive male figure skaters ages 16–24 (M = 18.53). Analyzed using a social constructivist and critical perspective, the results demonstrated the salience of body pressures for female skaters and afforded insight into sociocultural and historical factors that influence how male and female skaters experience their bodies differently in a skating context. Male skaters reported they faced less extreme body pressures, had certain physical advantages, and tended to be more confident than female skaters, which underscored a gendered body pressure experience. This work explores the intersections of gender and power within figure skating and examines body image concerns and unhealthy eating and exercise behaviors as a larger social justice issue that serves to encourage similar investigations in other sports.
Buffie Longmire-Avital, Takudzwa Madzima and Elyse Bierut
Previous research has documented the comprehensive health benefits of regular physical activity. However, just over a third of Black women report meeting the suggested amount of physical activity per week. Research also indicates that collegiate emerging adults often reduce their physical activity as well. Given that Black collegiate women represent the intersection of two groups that report a reduction in physical activity, the primary purpose of this descriptive study was to examine whether or not the rate of engagement in high-calorie-burning (HCB) activity by collegiate females differed by race. A secondary purpose was to explore how the chronic stress of racism for Black women was related to their HCB activity. Three hundred and eighty-three collegiate females between the ages of 18 and 25 (M = 19.67, SD = 1.45) participated; (61.1% [n = 234] self-identified as White, while the remaining 38.9% [n = 149] self-identified as Black). All eligible participants took a 10–15 min anonymous online survey. Results from a chi-squared analysis (χ2  = 8.40, p = .004) revealed that White collegiate women (70.3%) were more likely to report participation in weekly HCB activity than Black collegiate women (55.7%). Additional analyses also suggested that chronic experience with racism (F [1, 147] = 5.13, p = .03) was associated with more frequent HCB activity for the Black women sampled. Campus health promotion campaigns should not overlook how the experience of race may shape health behaviors for their racial minority students and sustain emerging health disparities.
Vítor Pires Lopes, Linda Saraiva, Celina Gonçalves and Luis P. Rodrigues
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J.D. DeFreese, Travis E. Dorsch and Travis A. Flitton
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K. Andrew R. Richards, Kim C. Graber and Amelia Mays Woods
). Where is the mind? Constructivist and sociocultural perspectives on mathematical development . Educational Researcher, 23 ( 7 ), 13 – 20 . doi:10.3102/0013189X023007013 10.3102/0013189X023007013 Cothran , D.J. , & Ennis , C. ( 1997 ). Students’ and teachers’ perceptions of conflict and power
Risto Marttinen, Dillon Landi, Ray N. Fredrick III and Stephen Silverman
, K. , Wright , J. , & Clarke , D. ( 2009 ). What does a sociocultural perspective mean in health and physical education? In M. Dinan-Thompson (Ed.), Health and physical education: Issues for curriculum in Australia and New Zealand (pp. 165 – 182 ). Melbourne, Australia : Oxford
Shrehan Lynch and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith
.). ( 2007 ). Handbook of narrative inquiry: Mapping a methodology . Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage Publications . 10.4135/9781452226552 Clandinin , D.J. ( 2016 ). Engaging in narrative inquiry . New York, NY : Left Coast Press . 10.4324/9781315429618 Cliff , K.P. ( 2012 ). A sociocultural perspective
Holly Thorpe and Megan Chawansky
organizations from a sociocultural perspective, Darnell ( 2010 ) described a tendency of these volunteers to interpret difference as “markers of underdevelopment,” which worked to sustain the neoliberal focus of development (p. 396). Despite a growing body of literature in management studies and sociology of