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Johanna Eronen, Mikaela von Bonsdorff, Merja Rantakokko, Erja Portegijs, Anne Viljanen and Taina Rantanen

Life-space mobility describes the extent of community mobility of older persons. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and life-space mobility and to investigate whether associations might be explained by SES-related disparities in health and functioning. The participants (n = 848) were community-dwelling adults aged 75–90. Education and occupation were used to indicate SES. Life-space assessment (range 0–120) was used to indicate distance and frequency of moving and assistance needed in moving. People with low education had lower life-space mobility scores than those with intermediate or high education: marginal means 63.5, 64.8, and 70.0 (p = .003), respectively. SES-related health disparities, i.e., higher body mass index, poorer cognitive capacity, and poorer physical performance explained the association, rendering it nonsignificant (marginal means 65.2, 65.3, and 67.5, p = .390). Low SES and restricted life-space mobility often coexist with overweight, reduced cognition, and poorer physical performance.

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Phillip M. Gray, Marie H. Murphy, Alison M. Gallagher and Ellen E. A. Simpson

This study explored motives and barriers to physical activity (PA) among older adults of differing socioeconomic status (SES) utilizing a self-determination theory and self-efficacy theory framework. Focus groups (n = 4) were conducted with older adults (n = 28) from two SES groups, using thematic analysis to identify motives and barriers. Integrated and identified regulations and, to a lesser extent, intrinsic motives, were evident across SES groups. Verbal persuasion and affective and physiological states emerged as prominent efficacy sources regardless of SES. More barriers were reported by the low SES group, with health conditions, neighborhood safety, and PA guidelines knowledge emerging as most salient. Time emerged as a prominent barrier for the high SES group. Integrated and identified regulations should be fostered in future interventions and policy regardless of SES. Barriers to PA varied across SES groups; thus future interventions and policy should account for such differences.

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Carolyn C. Voorhees, Dianne J. Catellier, J. Scott Ashwood, Deborah A. Cohen, Ariane Rung, Leslie Lytle, Terry L. Conway and Marsha Dowda

Background:

Socioeconomic status (SES) has well known associations with a variety of health conditions and behaviors in adults but is unknown in adolescents.

Methods:

Multilevel analysis was conducted to examine the associations between individual and neighborhood-level measures of SES and physical activity and body mass index in a sample of 1554 6th grade girls selected at random from 36 middle schools across 6 geographic regions in the United States that participated in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG). Data on parental education and employment, and receipt of subsidized school lunch were collected by questionnaire. Neighborhood-level SES was measured by the Townsend Index. Nonschool physical activity levels were measured by accelerometer and type, location and context was measured using a 3 day physical activity recall (3DPAR).

Results:

After controlling for race, lower parental education and higher levels of social deprivation were associated with higher BMI. In a model with both variables, effects were attenuated and only race remained statistically significant. None of the indices of SES were related to accelerometer measured physical activity. Bivariate associations with self-reported Moderate-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) location and type (3DPAR) varied by SES.

Conclusion:

Among adolescent girls in the TAAG Study, the prevalence of overweight is high and inversely related to individual and neighborhood SES.

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Angela Devereux-Fitzgerald, Rachael Powell and David P. French

living in a deprived or lower socioeconomic status (SES) area are twice as likely to be inactive as those in higher SES areas ( Public Health England, 2014 ). Deprivation has been defined as a lack of resources resulting in unmet basic needs, measured across several socioeconomic factors, for example

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Diana Marina Camargo, Paula Camila Ramírez, Vanesa Quiroga, Paola Ríos, Rogério César Férmino and Olga L. Sarmiento

innovative management of public open spaces like parks. 10 , 11 The associations between socioeconomic status (SES) of the neighborhoods and PA of their inhabitants are scarce. In 2012, Cohen et al 12 found that park programming activities, more than safety in the neighborhoods or green areas, contribute to

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Javier Molina-García and Ana Queralt

environments less conducive to activity. Hence, the potential role of high versus low neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) in moderating the relationship between the built environment and ACS must be evaluated in more detail, especially in children. 9 We examined the association between walkability, SES

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Kurusart Konharn, Maria Paula Santos and José Carlos Ribeiro

Background:

The impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on objective measures of physical activity (PA) in adolescence is poorly understood. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between SES and objectively measured PA in Thai adolescents.

Methods:

PA was objectively measured every 30 seconds for 7 consecutive days using ActiGraph GT1M uniaxial accelerometers in 177 secondary-school adolescents aged 13 to 18 years that were classified into 3 SES groups (low, middle, and high). The associations between SES and adolescents’ PA were examined using 1-way ANOVA with multiple comparisons and Chi-square test.

Results:

Adolescents of low-SES accumulated more minutes of PA and less of sedentary behavior than those of high-SES, Additionally, low-SES adolescents tended to meet the daily PA guidelines more than other groups, particularly in girls (P < .01).

Conclusions:

This study evidences an inverse relationship between SES and PA levels, and shows the importance of targeting high SES adolescents in intervention programs to enhance health behaviors. Based on these findings, we also suggest that SES must be considered as an important determinant in promoting regular PA and in increasing proportions of adolescents meeting current health-related PA guidelines.

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Maria Paula Santos, Carlos Esculcas and Jorge Mota

The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between adolescents’ choices regarding physical activity—both organized and nonorganized—and their parents’ socioeconomic status (occupation and education level) and to characterize those differences. The sample comprised 594 adolescents (304 girls and 290 boys) between 13 and 20 years old (mean age of 15.9). Physical activity was assessed by questionnaire and was classified as organized or nonorganized. The findings showed that adolescents from families of higher socioeconomic status chose significantly more organized activities, whereas, for those choosing nonorganized activities, only mothers’ education was statistically significant. Participants who engaged in organized physical activity reported more moderate-intensity, moderate-frequency team activities, whereas adolescents’ in nonorganized physical activities reported more low-intensity, moderate-frequency individual activities.

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Han C.G. Kemper, Mariëlle Spekreijse, Jaap Slooten, G. Bertheke Post, Desiree C. Welten and Jean Coudert

The main purpose of this study was to measure physical activity of 10- to 12-year-old prepubescent boys and girls living in Bolivia at low altitude (400 m above sea level) and at high altitude (4,000 m) with either a low socioeconomic status (LSES) or a high socioeconomic status (HSES). Habitual physical activity was measured by 24-hour heart rate (HR) monitoring during a normal school day. The mean HR is expressed as a percentage of heart rate reserve (HRR%) and the time spent at 50–85% HRR. Analysis by ANOVA showed no significant effects (p > .05) in HRR%. However, the boys spent significantly (p < .05) more time at 50–85% HRR (M = 51 min) than did girls (M = 34 min), and LSES children significantly (p < .01) more (M = 51 min) than HSES children (M = 32 min). There was also a significant interaction between SES and gender, indicating that the difference between boys and girls was significantly (p < .05) greater in LSES than in HSES, and the difference between LSES and HSES children was significantly (p < .05) greater in boys than in girls.

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Shilpa Dogra, Ban Al-Sahab, James Manson and Hala Tamim

The purpose of the current study was to determine whether aging expectations (AE) are associated with physical activity participation and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status (SES). A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 170 older adults (mean age 70.9 years) was conducted. Data on AE, physical activity, and health were collected using the 12 item Expectations Regarding Aging instrument, the Healthy Physical Activity Participation Questionnaire, and the Short Form-36, respectively. Adjusted linear regression models showed significant associations between AE and social functioning, energy/vitality, mental health, and self-rated general health, as well as physical activity. These results suggest that AE may help to better explain the established association between low SES, low physical activity uptake, and poor health outcomes among older adults.