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Ann-Kristin Beyer, Maja Wiest and Susanne Wurm

health behavior ( Wurm, Diehl, Kornadt, Westerhof, & Wahl, 2017 ). Life span theories point to the subjective perception of lifetime—the concept of future time perspective according to socioemotional selectivity theory (SST)—as a motivational factor throughout adulthood ( Carstensen, Isaacowitz

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Johanna Popp, Nanna Notthoff and Lisa Marie Warner

Older adults process and remember positive information relatively better than negative information, compared with younger adults; this is known as the positivity effect. This study examined whether older adults compared with younger adults also respond differently to positively and negatively framed questionnaire items. Participants (N = 275; age = 18–81 years) were randomly assigned to a positively or negatively framed version of a self-efficacy for physical activity questionnaire. Self-efficacy, physical activity intentions, and planned physical activity in the following week were regressed on experimental group and age, controlling for baseline physical activity and covariates. A significant Age × Frame interaction showed that item framing made a difference in planned physical activity for the oldest age group (+350 min compared with the youngest group). This study provides initial support for the positivity effect in item framing on physical activity plans, but not on intentions or self-efficacy. Item framing should be taken into consideration for accurate measurement, but could also be a simple intervention approach.

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Angela Devereux-Fitzgerald, Rachael Powell and David P. French

 al., 2017 ). The lack of efficacy of previous physical activity interventions may be explained by Socioemotional Selectivity Theory in which “the perception of time plays a fundamental role in the selection and pursuit of social goals” ( Carstensen, Isaacowitz, & Charles, 1999 , p. 165) with those having

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Valerie Senkowski, Clara Gannon and Paul Branscum

resources, as well as changes in goal orientation. Socioemotional selectivity theory posits that, as people perceive limitations on time, such as that which can occur with aging and the perceptions that one is approaching the end of one’s life, they (a) prioritize goals related to emotional meaning in the

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Kazuhiro Harada, Kouhei Masumoto, Ai Fukuzawa, Michiko Touyama, Koji Sato, Narihiko Kondo and Shuichi Okada

has been emphasized. Socioemotional selectivity theory, a psychological theory concerning older adults, proposes that preferences for social relationships change as people grow older and those older adults prioritize their satisfaction with social relationships and reduce the volume of their social

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Steve Amireault, John M. Baier and Jonathan R. Spencer

some instruction) as one ages, which provides indirect support for the impact of aging on the preferred social context. One of the potential explanations for this observation can be offered by the socioemotional selectivity theory ( Carstensen et al., 1999 ). As people age, time horizons may shrink