The present study examined the association between personality, competitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and physiological arousal in athletes with high and low anxiety levels. Anxiety was manipulated by means of an incentive. Fifty male participants, first, completed the Five Factor Personality Inventory and their resting electro dermal activity (EDA) was recorded. In the second stage, participants were randomly assigned to high or low anxiety groups. Individual EDAs were recorded again to determine precompetition physiological arousal. Participants also completed the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) and played a computer-simulated soccer match. Results showed that neuroticism was related to both CSAI-2 components and physiological arousal only in the group receiving the incentive. Winners had higher levels of cognitive anxiety and lower levels of physiological arousal than losers. On the basis of these findings, we concluded that an athlete’s neurotic personality may influence his cognitive and physiological responses in a competition.
The Relationship Among Personality, Cognitive Anxiety, Somatic Anxiety, Physiological Arousal, and Performance in Male Athletes
Kamuran Yerlikaya Balyan, Serdar Tok, Arkun Tatar, Erdal Binboga, and Melih Balyan
Interpretation of Competitive Anxiety Symptoms and Goal Attainment Expectancies
Graham Jones and Sheldon Hanton
Using Jones’s (1995) control model of debilitative and facilitative competitive anxiety, competitive swimmers (N = 91) were assessed on the intensity and direction of their cognitive anxiety and somatic anxiety responses one hour before an important race, and they completed scales examining outcome, performance, and process goals. It was hypothesized that there would be no difference in intensity of cognitive and somatic anxiety but that swimmers with positive expectancies of goal attainment would report their symptoms as being more facilitative. Forty-five swimmers who had set all three types of goal were divided into positive and negative/uncertain goal attainment expectancy groups for analysis. MANOVA supported the hypothesis in the case of cognitive anxiety and provided partial support in the case of somatic anxiety across all three goal types. Cognitive and somatic anxiety direction scores were the largest contributors to the significant multivariate effects. Eta-squared calculations showed that the predictions of Jones’s model were best supported in the case of performance goals.
Is Self-Confidence a Bias Factor in Higher-Order Catastrophe Models? An Exploratory Analysis
Lew Hardy, Tim Woodman, and Stephen Carrington
This paper examines Hardy’s (1990, 1996a) proposition that self-confidence might act as the bias factor in a butterfly catastrophe model of stress and performance. Male golfers (N = 8) participated in a golf tournament and reported their cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, and self-confidence prior to their tee shot on each hole. All anxiety, self-confidence, and performance scores were standardized within participants in order to control for individual differences. The data were then collapsed across participants and categorized into a high self-confidence condition and a low self-confidence condition by means of a median split. A series of two-way (Cognitive Anxiety × Somatic Anxiety) ANOVAs was conducted on each self-confidence condition in order to fag where the maximum Cognitive Anxiety × Somatic Anxiety interaction effect size lay along the somatic anxiety axis. These ANOVAs revealed that the maximum interaction effect size between cognitive and somatic anxiety was at a higher level of somatic anxiety for the high self-confidence condition than for the low self-confidence condition, thus supporting the moderating role of self-confidence in a catastrophe model framework.
The Relationship between Competitive Anxiety and Self-Presentational Concerns
Philip Wilson and Robert C. Eklund
The purpose of this investigation was to examine Leary’s (1992) contention that competitive anxiety revolves around the self-presentational implications of sport competition. Intercollegiate athletes (N = 199) completed inventories assessing competitive trait anxiety and self-presentational concerns. Principal-axis factor analysis with direct oblim rotation of self-presentational concern items produced an interpretable four-factor solution accounting for 62% of the variance. These factors were interpreted to represent self-presentational concerns about Performance/Composure Inadequacies, Appearing Fatigued/Lacking Energy, Physical Appearance, and Appearing Athletically Untalented. Correlational and structural equation modeling analyses revealed that self-presentational concern was more strongly associated with cognitive rather than somatic anxiety, and that substantial portions of variance in competitive anxiety could be accounted for by self-presentational concern variables. The results of this investigation provide support for Leary’s (1992) assertion regarding the relationship between self-presentational concern and competitive anxiety.
An Investigation of the Zones of Optimal Functioning Hypothesis Within a Multidimensional Framework
Tim Woodman, John G. Albinson, and Lew Hardy
Hanin’s (1980) zones of optimal functioning (ZOF) hypothesis suggests that a person is most likely to attain peak performance within an individual, specific bandwidth of state anxiety. The present study investigated Hanin’s ZOF hypothesis within a multidimensional framework, whereby zones of optimal functioning were computed for cognitive and somatic anxiety. Participants (N = 25) were members of a competitive bowling league; they completed the CSAI- 2 prior to each league match over a period of 20 weeks. Performance was operationalized as each participant’s score in the first game of each match, and these scores were standardized within subjects. The analysis revealed a significant main effect for somatic anxiety zone level and a significant interaction between cognitive and somatic anxiety zone levels (below, in, and above zone) and subsequent performance. Results are discussed in terms of the theoretical implications for future researchers, specifically in relation to the cusp catastrophe model.
Flotation REST as a Stress Reduction Method: The Effects on Anxiety, Muscle Tension, and Performance
Marcus Börjesson, Carolina Lundqvist, Henrik Gustafsson, and Paul Davis
ones’ own ability to perform optimally, or a preoccupation with the consequences of a failed performance and negative social evaluation ( Bell & Hardy, 2009 ; Land & Tenenbaum, 2012 ). The increased level of arousal associated with somatic anxiety is subjectively experienced as bodily sensations; for
The Interactive Effects of Intensity and Direction of Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety and Self-Confidence upon Performance
Tara Edwards and Lew Hardy
This study examines intensity and direction of competitive state anxiety symptoms, and the interactive influence of anxiety subcomponents upon netball performance. Netball players (N = 45) completed the modified Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) and a retrospective performance measure over a season, utilizing an intraindividual design. The modified CSAI-2 includes a direction scale assessing the facilitative or debilitative interpretation of the original intensity symptoms. Although the facilitative influence of anxiety upon performance did not emerge directly through the direction scale, a significant interaction emerged from the two-factor Cognitive Anxiety × Physiological Arousal quadrant analyses, suggesting that anxiety may enhance performance, as proposed by catastrophe model predictions. Findings also highlighted the importance of self-confidence for possible inclusion in higher order catastrophe models.
Factor Structure and Gender Invariance Testing for the Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2)
Leilani A. Madrigal, Vincenzo Roma, Todd Caze, Arthur Maerlender, and Debra Hope
10.3 30 11.1 4–6 years 49 18.1 45 16.6 7–10 years 50 18.5 46 17 11 or more years 109 40.2 118 43.5 Measures Sport performance anxiety The SAS-2 ( Smith et al., 2006 ) was used to assess sport-performance anxiety. The SAS-2 is a 15-item measure that involves three subscales (Somatic Anxiety, Worry
Measuring Anxiety in Athletics: The Revised Competitive State Anxiety Inventory–2
Richard H. Cox, Matthew P. Martens, and William D. Russell
The purpose of this study was to use confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to revise the factor structure of the CSAI-2 using one data set, and then to use CFA to validate the revised structure using a second data set. The first data set (calibration sample) consisted of 503 college-age intramural athletes, and the second (validation sample) consisted of 331 intercollegiate (Division I) and interscholastic athletes. The results of the initial CFA on the calibration sample resulted in a poor fit to the data. Using the Lagrange Multiplier Test (Gamma) as a guide, CSAI-2 items that loaded on more than one factor were sequentially deleted. The resulting 17-item revised CSAI-2 was then subjected to a CFA using the validation data sample. The results of this CFA revealed a good fit of the data to the model (CFI = .95, NNFI = .94, RMSEA = .054). It is suggested that the CSAI-2R instead of the CSAI-2 be used by researchers and practitioners for measuring competitive state anxiety in athletes.
Competitive Anxiety, Situation Criticality and Softball Performance
Vikki Krane, Douglas Joyce, and Jennifer Rafeld
The relationship among person factors, situational factors, and batting performance was examined during a collegiate softball tournament. Specifically, the purposes of the present study were to examine (a) cognitive and somatic anxiety and performance as related to athletes’ trait anxiety and situation criticality, and (b) the catastrophe theory prediction that somatic anxiety would differentially relate to performance depending upon the level of cognitive anxiety. Standardized performance scores and intraindividual cognitive and somatic anxiety scores were computed for each athlete (N = 11). As hypothesized, high levels of situation criticality were associated with high levels of cognitive anxiety, but somatic anxiety did not differ in the two situations. Both person and situation factors were significant predictors of cognitive and somatic anxiety; however, the more salient factor was dependent upon the measurement of anxiety (raw scores vs. standardized score). Consistent with the catastrophe theory, somatic anxiety had a different relationship with performance in high criticality situations compared to low criticality situations.