The purpose of this study was to describe and explain the teaching experiences of African American physical education teacher candidates in secondary physical education programs at urban schools. The research design was explanatory multiple-case study situated in positioning theory (Harré & van Langenhove, 1999). The participants were seven African American physical education teacher candidates. The data sources were interviews, self-reflective journal logs, and e-portfolios. The data were analyzed using a constant comparative method (Boeije, 2010). The thematic findings were: (a) tacit positioning (unconscious and unintentional), (b) self–other discourse, and (c) reflective positioning. The study’s findings offer additional empirical evidence that physical education teacher education programs must do more to better prepare teacher candidates for working in urban schools with greater cultural competency and higher self-efficacy.
Takahiro Sato and Samuel Russell Hodge
K. Andrew R. Richards, Andrew D. Eberline, Sookhenlall Padaruth and Thomas J. Templin
Service-learning has become a popular pedagogical tool to promote academic and civic learning. One form of service-learning provides physical activity for underrepresented community groups, including children with disabilities. Using experiential learning theory, the purpose of this descriptive case study was to evaluate college students’ experiences in a physical activity-based service learning program for children with disabilities. Through convenience sampling, 97 program participants (82 female, 15 male), most of whom were White (N = 85), were recruited for participation. Data included a pre- and postsurvey of civic learning, participant interviews, reflective journaling, and program observations. Qualitative data were analyzed using constant comparison and inductive analysis, and quantitative data were analyzed using Mixed ANOVAs. Results revealed that the program resulted in enhanced civic and academic learning. Themes included making a difference, academic and career connections, emotional and personal growth, and program reflection. Implications of the study and future directions for research are discussed.
Luis Columna, John T. Foley and Rebecca K. Lytle
The purpose of this study was to analyze both male and female physical education teacher attitudes toward cultural pluralism and diversity. Participants (N = 433) were adapted physical education specialists, physical education generalists, and teacher candidates. The research method was a descriptive cross-sectional survey (Fraenkel & Wallen, 1990). Data were collected using a modified version of the Pluralism and Diversity Attitude Assessment survey (Stanley, 1997). Mann-Whitney U tests showed no significant differences in attitude scores between teachers and teacher candidates. However, women’s attitude scores were significantly higher than men’s. Further Friedman’s ANOVA test showed statistical differences on the survey’s constructs for gender and professional status. Post hoc analysis indicated that the groups scored significantly higher on the construct, Value Cultural Pluralism than Implement Cultural Pluralism. This means teachers generally valued cultural diversity, but struggled to implement culturally responsive pedagogy. In conclusion, physical educators may need better preparation to ensure cultural competence.
Heidi Y. Perkins, Andrew J. Waters, George P. Baum and Karen M. Basen-Engquist
Studies have shown that expectations about exercise outcomes are associated with exercise behavior. Outcome expectations can be assessed by self-report questionnaires, but a new method—the expectancy accessibility task—may convey unique information about outcome expectations that is less subject to respondent biases. This method involves measuring the reaction time to endorse or reject an outcome We examined the relationship of self-reported outcome expectations and expectancy accessibility tasks in a pilot study of sedentary endometrial cancer survivors (N = 20). After measuring outcome expectations and expectancy accessibility, participants were given an exercise program and asked to monitor exercise for 7 days using diaries and accelerometers. Analyses revealed no relationship between outcome expectation scores and exercise, but shorter response times to endorse positive exercise outcomes was related to more exercise in the next week (p = .02).
Gavin Turrell, Michele Haynes, Martin O’Flaherty, Nicola Burton, Katrina Giskes, Billie Giles-Corti and Lee-Ann Wilson
Further development of high quality measures of neighborhood perceptions will require extensions and refinements to our existing approaches to reliability assessment. This study examined the test-retest reliability of perceptions of the neighborhood environment by socioeconomic status (SES).
Test and retest surveys were conducted using a mail survey method with persons aged 40 to 65 years (n = 222, 78.2% response rate). SES was measured using the respondent’s education level and the socioeconomic characteristics of their neighborhood of residence. Reliability was assessed using intraclass correlations (ICC) estimated with random coefficient models.
Overall, the 27 items had moderate-to-substantial reliability (ICC = 0.41−0.74). Few statistically significant differences were found in ICC between the education groups or neighborhoods, although the ICCs were significantly larger among the low SES for items that measured perceptions of neighborhood greenery, interesting things to see, litter, traffic volume and speed, crime, and rowdy youth on the streets.
For the majority of the items, poor reliability and subsequent exposure misclassification is no more or less likely among low educated respondents and residents of disadvantaged neighborhoods. Estimates of the association between neighborhood perceptions and physical activity therefore are likely to be similarly precise irrespective of the respondent’s socioeconomic background.
Timothy Martinson, Stephen A. Butterfield, Craig A. Mason, Shihfen Tu, Robert A. Lehnhard and Christopher J. Nightingale
Purpose: The purposes of this study were to examine the performance on the progressive aerobic cardiovascular endurance run (PACER) test in children with and without attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) over the course of a school year, and also to investigate the possible influence of age, sex, school sport participation, and body mass index on results. Methods: Utilizing a repeated measures design, 892 middle school children aged 11–14 years (mean = 12.25, SD = 0.94) including 55 children with ADHD participated. While controlling for age, sex, sports participation, and body mass index, children were tested on the PACER 3 times during the school year. Procedures specified in the FITNESSGRAM test manual were explicitly followed. Hierarchical linear modeling was applied to analyze the data. Results: Children with ADHD performed 8.6 fewer laps at intercept (baseline), than did healthy children without ADHD (t 878 = −6.20, P < .001). However, no significant differences emerged for time (slope). In addition, no significant interactions were found for ADHD with age, sex, sports participation, or body mass index. Conclusion: A diagnosis of ADHD, independent of selected predictor variables, explained lower PACER performance.
Suzanna M. Martinez, Elva M. Arredondo, Scott Roesch, Kevin Patrick, Guadalupe X. Ayala and John P. Elder
U.S. Latinos engage in nonleisure-time walking (NLTW) more than other ethno-racial groups. Studies are needed to explore factors associated with NLTW to inform interventions for effective physical activity promotion.
To examine the social-ecological correlates of NLTW among Mexican-origin Latinos.
Individual, social, and environmental level factors and PA were assessed in a telephone survey completed by 672 Mexican-origin adults randomly sampled in San Diego County. Data were collected in 2006 and analyzed in 2009.
Participants were mostly female (71%), with an average age of 39 years. Less than one-third met PA guidelines for NLTW (29%). Structural equation modeling showed that NLTW was positively associated with being female, but negatively associated with living in the U.S. ≥ 12 years, and being U.S.-born.
In this sample NLTW differed by various indicators of acculturation and gender. These findings might help inform the development of interventions to promote NLTW and thus physical activity in Mexican-origin adults.
Cliff S. Klein, Geoffrey A. Power, Dina Brooks and Charles L. Rice
Few examined the contribution of neural and muscular deficits to weakness in the same stroke subject. We determined maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and 50 Hz torques, activation (twitch interpolation), electromyographic (EMG) amplitude and antagonist coactivation, and muscle volume using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the dorsiflexors bilaterally in 7 chronic stroke subjects (40–67 y). Recordings of MVC and 50 Hz torque were also done in 7 control subjects (24–69 y) without stroke. The MVC torque was smaller in the contralesional than ipsilesilesional limb (29.8 ± 21.3 Nm vs. 42.5 ± 12.0 Nm, p = .04), and was associated with deficits in activation (r2 = .77) and EMG amplitude (r2 = .71). Antagonist coactivation percentage was not significantly different between limbs. Muscle volume, 50 Hz torque, and specific torque (50Hz torque/muscle volume) were also not different between sides. The concept that atrophy is commonplace after stroke is not supported by the results. Our findings indicate that dorsiflexor weakness in mobile stroke survivors is not explained by atrophy or reduced torque generating capacity suggesting an important role for central factors.
Aviva Must, Sarah Phillips, Carol Curtin and Linda G. Bandini
Individual, social, and community barriers to physical activity (PA) experienced by children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) make PA participation more difficult and may contribute to increased screen time.
We compared the prevalence of parent-reported barriers to PA among 58 typically developing (TD) children and 53 children with an ASD, 3 to 11 years, and assessed the association between barriers and PA participation and screen time among children with ASD.
Parents of children with ASD reported significantly more barriers than parents of TD children. Based on parent-report, 60% of children with ASD required too much supervision compared with no TD children (P < .001). Parents of children with ASD were more likely to report that adults lack skills needed to include their child (58%), that their child has few friends (45%), and that other children exclude their child (23%). The number of parent-reported barriers to PA was inversely correlated with the hours spent in PA per year (r = −0.27, P = .05) and positively related to total screen time (r = .32, P < .03).
These findings underscore the need for community-based PA programs designed to meet the special requirements of this population and policies that compel schools and other government-supported organizations for inclusion and/or targeted programming.
Fabien D. Legrand
We examined the possible mediating role of physical self-perceptions, physical self-esteem, and global self-esteem in the relationships between exercise and depression in a group of socioeconomically disadvantaged women with elevated symptoms of depression. Forty-four female residents of a low-income housing complex were randomized into a 7-week-long exercise-training group or a wait-list group. Depression, physical self-perceptions and self-esteem were measured repeatedly. Significant changes were found for depression, self-esteem, physical self-worth, and self-perceived physical condition in the exercise-training group. Intent-to-treat analyses did not alter the results. Most of the reduction in depression occurred between Week 2 and Week 4 while initial improvement in physical self-worth and self-perceived physical condition was observed between baseline and Week 2. These variables can be seen as plausible mechanisms for effects of exercise on depression.