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Lijuan Wang

to attend PE activities, social isolation, and discrimination by peers without special needs ( Coates & Vickerman, 2008 ). These issues led to restricted participation in PE and limited social learning opportunities for students with special needs ( Asbjørnslett & Hemmingsson, 2008 ; Blinde

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Pilvikki Heikinaro-Johansson and Claudine Sherrill

The purpose was to develop a model to guide assessment for physical education planning for integration and inclusion at the school district level. A secondary goal was to determine if teachers’ gender, age, education, and experience of teaching children with special needs are associated with beliefs about barriers to integration. To test the model, data were collected from physical education specialists and classroom teachers in central Finland. The survey instruments were three scales: (a) Awareness of Individual Differences Survey, (b) Survey of Adapted Physical Education Needs–Finnish modification (SAPEN-F), and (c) Teacher Beliefs About Physical Education Integration Scale. Results indicated that Finnish teachers know they have students with special needs. PE specialists and classroom teachers share many common beliefs about priority needs. Teachers believe that the most important barrier that hinders physical education integration is attitude. The model described herein worked in Finland and is ready for further testing by other countries.

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Lauriece L. Zittel

Accurate gross motor assessment of preschool children with special needs is necessary for quality intervention. This paper will identify critical factors for the selection of a preschool gross motor assessment instrument. Nine commercially available tools that purport to measure gross motor skill are critiqued, in table form, according to identified criteria. The criteria include purpose of the assessment, technical adequacy of the tool, nondiscriminatory factors, administrative ease, instructional link, and ecological validity of the instrument. Key features within each of the criteria will be used to review and analyze each instrument. This review illustrates that assessment tools vary in their ability to meet the assessment needs of preschool children suspected of having motor delays, and such tools therefore must be carefully selected.

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Erin R. Mazzoni, P. Lynn Purves, Julie Southward, Ryan E. Rhodes, and Viviene A. Temple

The impact of a six-week indoor wall climbing on the perceptions of self for children with special needs aged 6–12 years was explored. Participants (n = 46) were randomly assigned to the intervention (girls, n = 4; boys, n = 19) and control groups (girls, n = 5; boys, n = 18). Belayers’ and children’s perceptions of efficacy were measured using specifically designed questionnaires and perceptions of competence and global self-worth were measured using Harter’s (1985) Self-Perception Profile for Children for participants with an adaptive age of 8 years or higher. Children’s self-efficacy and belayers’ ratings of children’s efficacy improved significantly, t(21) = 3.9, p = .001, d = .84 and F(2, 44) = 30.03, p < .001, respectively. The children’s judgments of their athletic and social competence and global self-worth, however, did not change over time or differ from the wait-listed control group (p > .05). These results suggest that it is likely that many experiences that enhance self-efficacy may be needed to improve self-perceptions.

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Katherine Holland and Justin A. Haegele

Collection, (g) SocINDEX, (h) SPORTDiscus, and (i) Teacher Reference Center. Three lines of search words were adopted from the Haegele and Sutherland ( 2015 ) review: (a) disability, disabled, special needs; (b) physical education; and (c) qualitative research, qualitative method, naturalistic method

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Gudrun M. Doll-Tepper

Problems exist in the definition and terminology of the “minimal cerebral dysfunction” syndrome. Various possibilities of diagnosing the different symptoms of the syndrome will be presented in this article. Specific reference will be made to motricity, including the so-called motodiagnostic test procedures, of which the most frequently used in the Federal Republic of Germany will be presented. The psychomotor approach, originally devised by Kiphard and currently called “motopedagogy/mototherapy,” is introduced as one of the most successful means of intervention.

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Siu-Ming Choi, Raymond Kim-Wai Sum, Tristan Wallhead, Amy Sau-Ching Ha, Cindy Hui-Ping Sit, Deng-Yau Shy, and Feng-Min Wei

content knowledge,” “applying scientific knowledge in teaching PE,” “accommodating skill level differences,” “teaching students with special needs,” “instruction,” “using assessment,” and “using technology.” The participants responded to the instrument on a 1–10 Likert scale (1 =  disagree/cannot do and

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Joanne G. Mirtschin, Sara F. Forbes, Louise E. Cato, Ida A. Heikura, Nicki Strobel, Rebecca Hall, and Louise M. Burke

according to each dietary prescription and fine-tuned according to specific energy requirements or special needs or preferences of individual participants. For several meals within each rotation, PCHO tracked HCHO in providing meals with HCHO. However, on other occasions, when low CHO availability was

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Shona L. Halson, Louise M. Burke, and Jeni Pearce

variation in the nutritional needs for different events (e.g., shotput vs. marathon) and transitions between training, tapering, competing, and celebrating;  ○ opportunities to showcase the local cuisine of the host city or country, and  ○ special needs for athlete with food allergies/intolerances or other