perform better than their PD counterparts in all three variables. Methods This cross-sectional study used part of the data from a large-scale project which was designed to enhance children’s PA in Hong Kong special schools. A multilevel approach promoting PA was implemented and specifically targeted at
Associations Between Perceived Social Support, Perceived Competence, and Physical Activity in Hong Kong Children With Disabilities During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Ming Hui Li, Jane Jie Yu, Stephen Heung Sang Wong, Raymond Kim Wai Sum, and Cindy Hui Ping Sit
Effect of Yoga on the Motor Proficiency of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and the Feasibility of its Inclusion in Special School Environments
Sindhu Shanker and Balaram Pradhan
social interaction, nonverbal communication skills, and emotional receptivity in the children. Special Schools Special schools are small private schools that accommodate children with different disabilities by providing a focused environment and support for their diverse learning needs ( Byrd, 2010
Sport Participation of Hong Kong Chinese Children with Disabilities in Special Schools
Cindy H.P. Sit, Koenraad J. Lindner, and Claudine Sherrill
The purpose was to examine sport participation (excluding physical education classes) of school-aged Chinese children with disabilities attending special schools in Hong Kong. A sample of 237 children, ages 9 to 19, attending 10 special schools in Hong Kong, responded to a sport participation questionnaire in individual interviews. Data were analyzed by gender, two school levels, and five disability types. Results relating to participation frequency and extent indicated that girls were significantly less active than boys. Children with physical disability, visual impairment, and mental disability were less active than children with hearing impairment and maladjustment. Children with different types of disabilities varied in their participation patterns and choices of physical activities as well as their motives for sport participation, nonparticipation, and withdrawal. We concluded that disability type is more related to children’s participation behaviors in sport and physical activities than to gender and school level.
Activity Levels during Physical Education and Recess in Two Special Schools for Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities
Cindy H.P. Sit, Thomas L. McKenzie, John M.G. Lian, and Alison McManus
This study compared physical education (PE) and recess in two markedly different special schools for children with mild intellectual disabilities; one school had a reputation for focusing on sports (High Sport Focus-HSF) and the other did not (Low Sport Focus-LSF). Data were collected in 24 PE classes and 48 recess periods using a validated observation system. During both PE and recess, HSF students engaged in physical activity (PA) at greater intensity levels, but LSF students accrued more total activity min. Differences in PA during PE between the schools were associated with both lesson context and teacher behavior. The results suggest written (e.g., scheduling) and unwritten policies within schools affect children’s activity levels.
Results and SWOT Analysis of the 2022 Hong Kong Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Adolescents With Special Educational Needs
Cindy H.P. Sit, Wendy Y.J. Huang, Stephen H.S. Wong, Martin C.S. Wong, Raymond K.W. Sum, and Venus M.H. Li
PWDs; and 110 tailor-made programs for 5,300 students from special schools; organized events for PWDs in the Hong Kong Games ( Home Affairs Bureau, 2021 ). • EDB and HAB jointly implemented the Opening up School Facilities for Promotion of Sports Development Scheme (including special schools) from 2017
Wheelchair Sports: A New Perspective on Integration
Frank M. Brasile
For decades, the integration of handicapped children and adults into the mainstream of society has been promoted as a valuable and necessary concept. With the advent of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and Public Law 94-142, the trend of mainstreaming individuals with handicaps into the “normal” world has led to the termination of many special schools and special recreation programs. This manuscript explores the potential of a new technique for integrating the disabled and the nondisabled. It is hypothesized that such integration will lead to a deeper commitment to, as well as a keener insight into, the plight of the disabled individual in regard to the attitudinal and architectural barriers that are still so prevalent in our society today. It is time to truly place more of a focus upon the ability of the participant, not the disability.
Test-Retest Reliability of Eurofit Physical Fitness Items for Children with Visual Impairments
Suzanne Houwen, Chris Visscher, Esther Hartman, and Koen A.P.M. Lemmink
The purpose of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability of physical fitness items from the European Test of Physical Fitness (Eurofit) for children with visual impairments. A sample of 21 children, ages 6-12 years, that were recruited from a special school for children with visual impairments participated. Performance on the following physical fitness items was measured on two test sessions with 4 weeks in between: sit-and-reach, standing broad jump, handgrip, sit-ups, bent-arm hang, and 20-m multistage shuttle run. The 10 × 5-m shuttle run was replaced by a 5 × 10-m shuttle run. Intraclass correlations ranged from .63 to .91, indicating moderate-to-excellent reliability. However, systematic differences between test and retest were found for the sit-and-reach, bent-arm hang, and the modified 5 × 10-m shuttle run items. The results indicate that for most items, test-retest reliability was satisfactory, but that improvements need to be made to the test protocols of the sit-and-reach, bent-arm hang, and the 5 × 10-m shuttle run items to ensure test-retest reliability.
An Alternative to Least Restrictive Environments: A Continuum of Support to Regular Physical Education
Martin E. Block and Patricia L. Krebs
The concept of least restrictive environments (LRE), originally conceived by Deno (1970) and Reynolds (1962) to advocate for a range of special education placements for children with disabilities, has become synonymous with a continuum of physical education placement options for students with disabilities. Many models have been presented over the years. Options range from full-time regular physical education in a regular school to full-time adapted physical education in a special school or facility, with various placement options in between. The emphasis of these models is on varying the placement to meet the needs of the student with disabilities. Taylor (1988) has identified several flaws to the concept of LRE placement options. In addition, many special education professionals advocate placing all students with disabilities in regular education with varying levels of support (e.g., Stainback & Stainback, 1990). This paper discusses an alternative to the traditional continuum of LRE placement options. This new model presents a continuum of support which emphasizes how much and what type of assistance is provided to a particular student with disabilities that will enable him/her to succeed in regular physical education.
A Comparison of Static and Dynamic Balance in Congenitally Blind, Sighted, and Sighted Blindfolded Adolescents
Hani Ribadi, Robert A. Rider, and Tonya Toole
The purpose of this investigation was to compare static and dynamic balance in sighted, sighted blindfolded, and congenitally blind students. The subjects (N = 51) ranged in age from 14.1 to 17.4 years of age. The sighted subjects (N = 34) were randomly assigned to one of two groups, 17 in the sighted and 17 in the sighted blindfolded group. The 17 congenitally blind subjects were selected from the total population of blind students attending a special school for the blind. All subjects were tested for static balance using the Stork Stand. Dynamic balance was measured using the stabilometer. The data analysis revealed significant differences between all three groups, with the sighted group demonstrating superior balance for both measures. The blind subjects performed significantly better than the sighted blindfolded group for dynamic balance only. The results of the study support previous investigations which have demonstrated that sighted individuals have better balance when compared with blind individuals. However, the fact that the blind subjects performed better on dynamic balance when compared to the sighted blindfolded group points to the need for immediate intervention in this area for adventitiously blind persons, or those acquiring blindness later in life.
Every Body Active: A Sports Council National Demonstration Project in England
The 1981 Education Act implies that, in England, provided certain conditions are satisfied, schoolchildren with special needs should be taught in an integrated setting (Advisory Centre for Education, 1981). In 1982 the English Sports Council set up national demonstration projects to promote mass participation in sport throughout all sections of the community. Every Body Active (E.B.A.) is such a project, based at Sunderland Polytechnic, and it focuses on the participation and integration of young people (11–24 years) with physical or sensory disabilities in community sport and recreation and school physical education. The project is divided into two phases. The research phase, initiated in January 1987, ran for a period of 15 months during which data were collected in order to establish needs. Subsequently several schemes were established to be undertaken in the implementation phase, initiated in April 1988. The focus of this paper is the physical education scheme and the research findings that preceded its formation. On the basis of the research phase, a physical education scheme has been implemented that focuses on a special school for pupils with physical disabilities, its physical education program, and links with mainstream schools and external community sport and recreation agencies.