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Katrina Wynnyk and Nancy Spencer-Cavaliere

The purpose of this qualitative case study was to explore children with disabilities’ social relationships and motivation to take part in sledge hockey. Harter’s (1978) theory of Competence Motivation was used as the conceptual framework. Ten children (1 girl and 9 boys) between ages 11–16 years, who experienced a range of disabilities, participated. Primary data were collected using semistructured interviews, participant observations, and field and reflective notes. The thematic analysis led to four themes: (a) coach feedback, (b) parental involvement, (c) skill and belonging, and (d) (dis)ability sport. The findings revealed that interactions with significant others contributed extensively to the participant’s perceptions of competence and motivation to participate, as did the sport’s competitive nature. The findings are discussed in the context of Harter’s theory and the children’s sport and adapted physical activity inclusion literature.

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Lenny D. Wiersma

Of growing concern to sport researchers is the practice of youth sport athletes specializing in sport at a young age. Sport specialization is characterized by year-round training in a single sport at the exclusion of other sport or nonsport activities. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the potential benefits of specialized sport at an early age in light of the potential risks associated with specialized participation. Three areas of consideration are discussed, including motor skill acquisition and performance, potential sociological consequences, and psychological concerns related to high-intensity training of young athletes. Finally, recommendations for further research and practical considerations are suggested for deciding the appropriateness of specialized sport in the training and development of youth sport athletes.

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Andrew G. Wood, Jamie B. Barker, Martin Turner, and Peter Thomson

Research examining the effects of rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) on athletic performance is emerging. There is, however, a paucity of research exploring psychological interventions in specialized sport populations. The present study investigated the effects of a single REBT workshop, including intellectual and practical insight into the ABC(DE) framework, on psychological, physiological, and performance markers in an elite blind soccer team. From use of a within-participant pretest–posttest crossover design in an ecologically valid setting, data indicated small and immediate reductions in irrational beliefs, perceived helpfulness of preperformance anxiety, and physiological markers (i.e., systolic blood pressure) prior to a penalty-kick simulation. However, no substantial changes were shown in penalty-kick performance. In sum, although the findings elucidate some benefits of a single REBT workshop, the educational insight into the ABC(DE) framework was deemed insufficient for meaningful changes in outcome measures. Practical implications and recommendations for future researchers are discussed.

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Michael J. Duncan, Neil D. Clarke, Lee Bolt, Emma Eyre, and Clare M.P. Roscoe

Recreational soccer is played by over 3.3 million children in England alone ( The FA, 2015 ), and can provide health-enhancing physical activity for children, but also provides a path to more specialized sport performance through talent development programs employed by national governing bodies in

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Heather K. Larson, Bradley W. Young, Tara-Leigh F. McHugh, and Wendy M. Rodgers

, comparing the motivations of specializers to nonspecializers but failed to look at associations between motivation for youth and adult sport participation. However, the author speculated that specialized sport settings may not be detrimental, if self-determined motivation is maintained. Limitations The

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Brock McMullen, Hester L. Henderson, Donna Harp Ziegenfuss, and Maria Newton

school athletics, for example, may be more focused on refining specialized sport skills and perfecting strategies and tactics. Currently, in the United States, there are approximately 4.5 million high school male athletes contributing to a total of more than 7.9 million high school sport participants

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Rebecca A. Zakrajsek, Leslee A. Fisher, and Scott B. Martin

understand specialized sport psychology strategies, nor should they be expected to do the job of a certified SPC (see Zakrajsek et al., 2017 ). To our knowledge, this is the first qualitative study that highlights how SPCs have been or might be used in student-athlete injury rehabilitation and return to

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Kylie McNeill, Natalie Durand-Bush, and Pierre-Nicolas Lemyre

of coaching experience. Two of the coaches worked at the developmental level (i.e., increasing commitment from athletes and coaches, specialized sport-specific training, more formal competitive structure; Gilbert & Trudel, 2006 ) with tennis (Coach B) and figure skating (Coach C) athletes. The other

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Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Viviane Grassmann, Krystn Orr, Amy C. McPherson, Guy E. Faulkner, and F. Virginia Wright

modifications were made to the programs including (a) low-technology adaptations to provide additional support and stability ( Devine & O’Brien, 2007 ; Devine & Parr, 2008 ); (b) availability of additional equipment, such as pool flotation devices ( Oriel et al., 2012 ), specialized sport wheelchairs ( Hedrick

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Makenzie A. Schoeff, Katie R. Morey, James E. Johnson, Anya T. Eicher, and Lawrence W. Judge

parental pressure was the financial commitment made by Taylor’s parents. Due to differences in socioeconomic status, some parents are more likely to fund their child’s participation in specialized sport, which supports the notion that children with higher socioeconomic status are able to begin competitive