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Herbert Wagner, Patrick Fuchs, Andrea Fusco, Philip Fuchs, Jeffrey W. Bell and Serge P. von Duvillard

greater in general compared with specific physical performance characteristics and to determine the relationship between general and specific performance. We found no interaction (sex × test) for jump height in the countermovement jump and in the jump shot during the game-based performance test (Figure  3

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L. R. Brawley, R. C. Powers and K. A. Phillips

This experiment examined if a general expectancy for male superiority biased subjective evaluation of motor performance. Alternatively, sex bias could be specific to tasks involving muscular work. If the former, rather than the latter explanation is viable, a bias favoring males would be generalized to a task not obviously sex typed: motor accuracy. Observers, 22 of each sex, watched the softball pitching accuracy of performers of both sexes. Performer accuracy was trained and tested to ensure equality. Observers estimated preperformance accuracy, then observed three throws, estimating postperformance after each. Unlike the muscular endurance experiments, neither preperformance nor postperformance analysis revealed a sex bias. Thus a task-specific expectancy rather than general expectancy for male superiority was suggested to explain evaluation sex bias of previous muscular endurance experiments. Surprisingly, mean error magnitude of postperformance estimates was significantly greater for performers observed second than those viewed first, although actual performer accuracy was not different. This finding appears analogous to psychophysical judgment results in which successive stimulus judgments were conditions sufficient to cause estimation error. Suggestions are made for future research.

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Haresh T. Suppiah, Chee Yong Low, Gabriel Choong and Michael Chia

of a brief afternoon nap on shooting, sprint, and cognitive performance among high-level adolescent student-athletes. The objective of these studies was to ascertain if an acute short nap can elicit sport-specific performance changes after a night of sleep restriction. Methods Subjects: Study 1 In

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Sabrina Skorski, Iñigo Mujika, Laurent Bosquet, Romain Meeusen, Aaron J. Coutts and Tim Meyer

reduction in cycling performance (40-km time trial) after a 6-day intensive training camp in 10 out of the 23 cyclists involved. Even though it has been stated that the assessment of a decrement in sports-specific performance represents the gold standard for measuring short-term fatigue in athletes, it

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Paul J. Felton, Maurice R. Yeadon and Mark A. King

risk of future injuries, 1 – 5 rather than being able to investigate the optimization of subject-specific performance of maximal effort activities. With this in mind, forward dynamics torque-driven models are often used to investigate performance of maximal effort activities since subject

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Aaron T. Scanlan, Neal Wen, Joshua H. Guy, Nathan Elsworthy, Michele Lastella, David B. Pyne, Daniele Conte and Vincent J. Dalbo

the IMTP and basketball-specific performance tests, are yet to be examined in adolescent basketball players. Although exploration of the IMTP in adolescent basketball players is scarce, some data are available on adult players. Specifically, varying correlations were observed between IMTP peak force

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Gustavo Monnerat, Alex S. Maior, Marcio Tannure, Lia K.F.C. Back and Caleb G.M. Santos

55% European SNPs, 31% African SNPs, and 14% of Amerindian SNPs. 21 Undoubtedly, the African contribution is very large in the genetic variability of the Brazilian population and is related to historical issues involving conquest, slavery, and migrations. 22 However, using the specific performance

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Iñigo Mujika, Juanma Santisteban, Paco Angulo and Sabino Padilla

A 7-week, 10-session individual training program was implemented with a youth elite football (soccer) player who had been underperforming because of poor aerobic fitness. The intervention focused on developing aerobic power and high lactate production and contributed to a 32.3% improvement in a football-specific performance test. The player was able to return to play and exceed expected performance levels during competitive match play.

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Andrew M. Edwards and Raewyn E. Walker

The efficacy of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has been the subject of considerable controversy in terms of whether it is beneficial to endurance athletes and because a convincing physiological rationale has not been identified to explain its mechanism of action. Early studies suggested that IMT was an ineffectual intervention for gains in either maximal aerobic power or endurance-specific performance. More rigorous recent research supports the observation that maximal aerobic power is not receptive to IMT; however, closer evaluation of both early and contemporary research indicates that responses to endurance-specific performance tests are sensitive to IMT. As the aim of endurance training is to improve endurance performance rather than maximal aerobic power, it is plausible that IMT may be useful in specific performance-related circumstances. Performance adaptations following IMT appear to be connected with post training reports of attenuated effort sensations, but this common observation has tended to be overlooked by researchers in preference for a reductionist explanation. This commentary examines the pertinent research and practical performance implications of IMT from the holistic perspective of complex central metabolic control.