ambient energy that (it is claimed) bear a unique, or specificational relation to aspects of reality. Well-known examples include optic flow, which arises from self-motion relative to the illuminated environment, and time-to-contact, which influences patterns of change in light, sound, or forces (e
Thomas A. Stoffregen
Sidney V. Irwin, Anjum Naweed, and Michele Lastella
for research. Theoretical Framework In their AACTT framework, Presseau et al. ( 2019 ) argue that “clear specification of the behaviour is a key though often overlooked first step” (p. 2). This theory extends the framework which defines behavior through four main themes identified by Fishbein and
Richard J. Paulsen
night game. wOBA = weighted on-base average. Results To first identify how contract years remaining impact performance, regressions were estimated with wOBA as the dependent variable. In Table 2 , specification (1) includes only contract years left as an independent variable, without player fixed
Paul Andrew Estabrooks
-AIM and IOF, a number of challenges arose that included inconsistent use of terminology, how outcomes were operationalized, specification of how outcomes would be included in analyses relative to other variables who, provided information on outcome assessment, level of assessment and analyses of outcomes
Joseph J. Crisco, Elizabeth I. Drewniak, Martin P. Alvarez, and David B. Spenciner
Although the sport of lacrosse has evolved dramatically over the last few decades and is presently the fastest growing team sport in the United States, the current specifications for balls date back to 1943. The purpose of this study was to see if various commercially available field lacrosse balls meet these specifications and to determine additional mechanical properties of the ball that may more completely characterize ball performance. Eight models from several manufacturers were tested. Seven models were designated for game play, while one model was promoted as a practice ball. In accordance with the specifications, the mass, circumference, and rebound height were recorded for one dozen balls from each model. The load required to compress the balls 0.0125 m and the coefficient of restitution (COR) with an incident speed of 26.80 m/s were also determined. We found that some balls met several of the specifications, but none of the models had every ball meet all the specif cations. For the two measures of ball liveliness, rebound height had a weak correlation with COR. Ball compression loads averaged about 750 N over most models, but were almost 85% less for the practice model. It appears that current governing body specifications are outdated, as no ball model we tested met these specifications. The determination of ball liveliness at more realistic speeds should also be taken into account. Since balls with low compression loads can pass through face protectors worn by lacrosse players, the sport's governing bodies may wish to consider a specification on ball compression.
Mackenzie Holman, Madeline P. Casanova, and Russell T. Baker
.86. Modification indices did not suggest there were any meaningful cross-loadings or additional specifications that could further maximize fit or parsimony. Figure 1 —CFI of the Disablement in Physically Active Scale Short Form-8. Chi Sq = Chi Square (χ 2 ); CFI indicates Comparative Fit Index; IFI
Dinesh John, Qu Tang, Fahd Albinali, and Stephen Intille
selected to introduce additional variability in sensor specifications. Thus, eight accelerometers (brand name [g range, sampling rate]: ActivPal3 [±2 g, 20 Hz], GT3X [±3 g, 30 Hz], GT3X+ [±6 g, 40 Hz], GT3X+ [±6 g, 80 Hz], GT9X [±8 g, 60 Hz], GT9X [±16 g, 100 Hz], LG watch Urbane R [±2 g, 100 Hz], and moto
J. Greg Anson, Brian l. Hyland, Rolf Kötter, and Jeffery R. Wickens
A movement task was used to investigate the effects of precued variables on reaction time. The task involved rapid rotation of a hand-held manipulandum to target locations and required either pronation or supination of the forearm through short or long extent. The effects on reaction time of precues signalling target direction, extent, or a combination of direction and extent, were measured. The longest reaction times occurred when no information about direction or extent was provided in the precue (all parameters uncertain). Complete prior specification of target position produced the shortest reaction times. Specification of direction when extent was uncertain produced a significantly larger reduction in reaction time than specification of extent when direction was uncertain. Prior specification of extent also produced a small but significant reduction in reaction time relative to the condition in which direction and extent were specified in a mutually conditional manner. The results are discussed in relation to parameter precuing and motor programming, in which the direction is programmed by the pre-selection of neurons representing the muscles to be used in the task while programming of extent is represented by their level of activity during task performance.
Judith Shaul Norback and Diane Wattay
A job analysis was conducted to develop specifications for the physical education assessment of The Praxis Series: Professional Assessments for Beginning Teachers and to support the content relevance of the assessment. An advisory committee consisting of physical education teachers, teacher educators, and administrators worked with measurement psychologists to describe a knowledge domain important for newly licensed/certified physical education teachers to perform their jobs competently. The knowledge areas were judged for importance by a national sample of 815 physical education teachers, administrators, and college faculty. As a result of this survey, 128 knowledge statements were judged as important for newly licensed/certified physical education teachers.
Peter von Allmen, Michael Leeds, and Julian Malakorn
We add to the literature on migration and earnings by showing how migration affects one particularly highly skilled set of migrants: European hockey players. We examine salary differentials using a sample of newly signed free agents from the 2010-11 and 2011-12 seasons. We also apply several new productivity measures that sharpen the specification of the wage equation, especially regarding productivity on defense and special teams play. We find that European players receive a premium relative to otherwise identical Canadian and US-born players. We present evidence that this premium is due to the greater mobility of European players and their resulting access to alternative employment possibilities.