This article examines the current state of research regarding the effect of spectator sport on population health. We conducted a scoping study that involved a comprehensive search of published and gray literature between 1990 and 2014, and identified 135 studies empirically examining the effect of spectator sport on population health. A frequency analysis shows that there is a paucity of studies on this topic published in sport management journals. A thematic analysis further reveals that the reviewed studies can be classified into nine research themes depicting the relationships among certain categories of spectator sport and population health. Based on this scoping study, we develop a framework and identify several gaps in the literature that should be addressed to advance our understanding of the relationship between spectator sport and population health.
Yuhei Inoue, Brennan K. Berg and Packianathan Chelladurai
increasing participation at the local club level. Future Directions for Australian Football The Next Big Spectator Sport Global expansion is something the AFL has actively sought out for more than 20 years ( Carney, 2019 ). With viewing behavior of televised sports being positively correlated with live
Kyungyeol (Anthony) Kim, Kevin K. Byon and Paul M. Pedersen
spectator’s perspective. Although the behavior is initiated by other spectators and may disrupt the consumption order for the victim, it does not necessarily violate generally accepted norms. That is, some spectators might think that standing up and watching a game are part of spectator sport consumption
Mark P. Pritchard and Daniel C. Funk
The relationship between the consumption of sport via media and its more active counterpart, attendance, remains ambiguous. Some researchers have observed a symbiotic relationship at work—each behavior fueling the other, whereas others see no connection or argue that media use competes with live attendance as a recreational substitute. The current study of baseball game spectators (n = 308) employed a dual-route framework (DRF) to describe symbiotic and substitution behaviors. High/low mixes of media use and attendance were used to identify four distinct modes of intake (heavy, light, and media- and event-dominant). Follow-up comparisons distinguished each mode with discrete levels of involvement, satisfaction, and spectator attraction. The results expose the limits of previous models of spectator behavior and encourage us to broaden our understandings of consumption frequency beyond attendance alone. The DRF modes suggest that plotting media use in conjunction with attendance offers a more accurate account of spectator involvement. If models like the escalator dissected the data, they would consider the light and media-dominant and the heavy and event-dominant modes as equivalent. The importance of media-dominant consumption and the strategic implications of these segments are discussed.
Sonja Utz, Felix Otto and Tim Pawlowski
literature on using social media in (crisis) communication in the context of a popular spectator sport. Situational Crisis Communication Theory Crisis communication has been studied for decades in organizational contexts. The most prominent theory in this field is situational crisis communication theory
Yuhei Inoue and Cody T. Havard
This study investigates the determinants and consequences of the perceived social impact of a sport event by analyzing data obtained from 458 local attendees of the 2012 FedEx St. Jude Classic. Results show that a sport event generates a higher level of social impact for local attendees if they feel a greater sense of social camaraderie at the event and/or perceive a higher level of the social responsibility of the event. In turn, the creation of social impact leads to greater business returns, such that local attendees perceiving a high level of social impact are likely to support the event and its sponsors. These results offer some empirical evidence for Chalip’s (2006) framework of social leverage, and show why events and their sponsors need to make efforts to generate social benefits for host communities.
Mark Lowes and Christopher Robillard
are becoming social-media content creators and curators while competing against spectator sport-content creators. Whereas these changes might have a negative connotation, we argue that sport coverage in digital culture offers more opportunities for journalists to step outside the confines of
Yu Kyoum Kim and Galen Trail
This study focused on developing a model to explain relationships among constraints, motivators, and attendance, and empirically test the proposed model within the spectator sport context. The proposed model explained 34% of variance in Attendance. Results showed that Attachment to the Team, an internal motivator, entered first and explained approximately 21% of the variance in attendance. Lack of Success, an internal constraint, entered next and explained almost 10% additional variance. Leisure Alternatives, an external constraint entered next and explained an additional 3%. The ability to properly evaluate constraints and motivators gives sport marketers the opportunity to more effectively serve existing fans, as well as attract new fans.
Brendan Dwyer and Yongjae Kim
The contemporary sport fan has the ability to consume spectator sport through several means including event attendance, television and radio broadcasts, print publications, and Internet applications. Recently, an ancillary sport service, termed fantasy sports, has become one of the most popular activities among sport fans. As a result, the business of fantasy sports is booming. This study examined motivational dimensions underlying fantasy football participation from a Uses and Gratifications perspective. Utilizing Churchill’s (1979) five-step method for developing quality marketing measures, this study identified and validated three motivational dimensions: entertainment/escape, competition, and social interaction. The results suggest a pattern of fantasy football participation that is more purposeful and active than traditional media use. Discussed are the gambling associations, future research opportunities, and suggestions for developing fantasy football participation into a more creative and interactive marketing communication tool.
Stephen D. Ross
Despite the general understanding that spectator sport is a service-oriented product, sport brand equity research has overwhelmingly relied on models pertaining to physical goods and has been slow to acknowledge service marketing principles and the unique characteristics of team sport in understanding this topic. This article proposes a framework for the development of spectator-based brand equity by which the characteristics of spectator sports are recognized through organization, market, and experience-induced antecedents that contribute to spectator-based brand equity. It is suggested that the key components of brand equity for spectator sports consist of brand awareness and brand associations, and the result of these components is revealed in a set of consequences contributing to the value of a sport brand.