Previous research has indicated that spectators can influence the outcomes of athletic competitions. In Study 1, spectators' perceptions of their ability to influence the contests were examined. Results indicated that high levels of identification with sports teams were related to greater perceptions of influence. It was further predicted that high-identification fans would exhibit the most intense affective reactions to competition outcome. In Study 2 this proposition was tested and supported. High-identification fans reported an increase in pre- to postgame positive emotions following a win and an increase in negative emotions following a loss. Emotional changes were minimal for fans low in team identification. Finally, a third study was used to examine possible changes in team identification as a result of competition outcome for historically successful and marginally successful teams. The results indicated that although past team success was an important predictor of identification level, levels were not affected by game outcome.
Daniel L. Wann, Thomas J. Dolan, Kimberly K. MeGeorge and Julie A. Allison
Lindsey J. Meân and Jeffrey W. Kassing
The purpose of this study was to examine identity and spectator/fan communication at youth sporting events. Data were collected through naturalistic observation of 44 youth sporting events. The median age range of the athletes was 6–11 years. Critical discourse analysis revealed the enactment of overlapping and conflicting identities (sports fan/spectator, coach, and parent) and the re/production of the ideology of winning (at all costs) and aggressive competition, rather than participation, support, and “unconditional” encouragement. In particular, the enactment or performance of sports identities, including identification with athletes, was observed to overlap with the enactment of parental identities and identification with children in ways that suggested that the salient issue was enhancement of parent self-categorization as sports spectator/fan, coach, and parent of a great athlete through the success of the child-athlete. That is, talk and identity performance were less about the children and more about parents’ identities.
Gordon W. Russell
Mood scales were administered to spectators attending an especially violent ice hockey game (n = 117) and a relatively nonviolent game (n = 159). Subjects completed the scales either prior to the opening face-off, during the first or second period intermissions, or immediately following the match. The between-subjects design revealed an increase in spectator hostility accompanied by a quadratic arousal function for the violent game. The relationship between hostility (and arousal) and the period of play was best described by an inverted-U function. Arousal decreased at the nonviolent match. Other mood states were largely unaffected by the two games. The results were discussed with reference to three models of spectator moods in which outcome is featured as a major variable.
Mark P. Pritchard and Daniel C. Funk
The relationship between the consumption of sport via media and its more active counterpart, attendance, remains ambiguous. Some researchers have observed a symbiotic relationship at work—each behavior fueling the other, whereas others see no connection or argue that media use competes with live attendance as a recreational substitute. The current study of baseball game spectators (n = 308) employed a dual-route framework (DRF) to describe symbiotic and substitution behaviors. High/low mixes of media use and attendance were used to identify four distinct modes of intake (heavy, light, and media- and event-dominant). Follow-up comparisons distinguished each mode with discrete levels of involvement, satisfaction, and spectator attraction. The results expose the limits of previous models of spectator behavior and encourage us to broaden our understandings of consumption frequency beyond attendance alone. The DRF modes suggest that plotting media use in conjunction with attendance offers a more accurate account of spectator involvement. If models like the escalator dissected the data, they would consider the light and media-dominant and the heavy and event-dominant modes as equivalent. The importance of media-dominant consumption and the strategic implications of these segments are discussed.
Stephen D. Ross
Despite the general understanding that spectator sport is a service-oriented product, sport brand equity research has overwhelmingly relied on models pertaining to physical goods and has been slow to acknowledge service marketing principles and the unique characteristics of team sport in understanding this topic. This article proposes a framework for the development of spectator-based brand equity by which the characteristics of spectator sports are recognized through organization, market, and experience-induced antecedents that contribute to spectator-based brand equity. It is suggested that the key components of brand equity for spectator sports consist of brand awareness and brand associations, and the result of these components is revealed in a set of consequences contributing to the value of a sport brand.
Kyungyeol (Anthony) Kim, Kevin K. Byon and Paul M. Pedersen
Suppose you are watching professional football at a stadium with your friends. During the game, an inebriated spectator sitting in front of you engages in an argument with another spectator who is wearing a jersey of the opposing team. The two fans hurl insults at the other team and curse at each
David Light Shields, Nicole M. LaVoi, Brenda Light Bredemeier and F. Clark Power
The present study examined personal and social correlates of poor sportspersonship among youth sport participants. Male and female athletes (n = 676) in the fifth through eighth grades from three geographic regions of the U.S. participated in the study. Young athletes involved in basketball, soccer, football, hockey, baseball/ softball, or lacrosse completed a questionnaire that tapped poor sportspersonship behaviors and attitudes, team sportspersonship norms, perceptions of the poor sportspersonship behaviors of coaches and spectators, and the sportspersonship norms of coaches and parents. Preliminary analyses revealed significant gender, grade, sport area, and location differences in self-reported unsportspersonlike behavior. The main analysis revealed that self-reported poor sport behaviors were best predicted by perceived coach and spectator behaviors, followed by team norms, sportspersonship attitudes, and the perceived norms of parents and coaches. Results are discussed in relation to the concept of moral atmosphere.
Yuhei Inoue, Brennan K. Berg and Packianathan Chelladurai
This article examines the current state of research regarding the effect of spectator sport on population health. We conducted a scoping study that involved a comprehensive search of published and gray literature between 1990 and 2014, and identified 135 studies empirically examining the effect of spectator sport on population health. A frequency analysis shows that there is a paucity of studies on this topic published in sport management journals. A thematic analysis further reveals that the reviewed studies can be classified into nine research themes depicting the relationships among certain categories of spectator sport and population health. Based on this scoping study, we develop a framework and identify several gaps in the literature that should be addressed to advance our understanding of the relationship between spectator sport and population health.
Timothy D. DeSchriver and Paul E. Jensen
The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between spectator attendance at NCAA Division II football contests and selected determinants by estimating multiple economic demand models. The two primary determinants analyzed were winning percentage and promotional activity. Demand models were estimated using OLS and fixed-effect regression analysis. The results suggested that both current and previous year winning percentages are positively related to attendance. Furthermore, it is shown that the effect of previous season winning on attendance diminishes while the effect of current season winning increases as the season progresses. The results also indicated that promotional activities, the number of enrolled students, and market competition significantly affected attendance. Overall, the demand models explained between 37 and 70 percent of the variation in spectator attendance. The findings of this study may aid Division II athletic administrators who are attempting to increase revenues by attracting additional spectators to small-college football contests.
Anne Bowker, Belinda Boekhoven, Amanda Nolan, Stephanie Bauhaus, Paul Glover, Tamara Powell and Shannon Taylor
The purpose of the current study was to conduct an examination of spectator (i.e., parental) behavior at youth hockey games in a large Canadian city. Using naturalistic observation methods, an event sampling procedure was used to code spectators’ comments. Of specific interest were the type of remarks made, who made them (i.e., males versus females), the intensity of those remarks and whether they varied by child age, gender, and competitive level. We were also interested in whether the majority of onlookers’ comments were actually directed at the players, on-ice officials, or fellow spectators. Five observers attended 69 hockey games during the 2006–2007 hockey season. There was a significant variability in the number of comments made, with an average of 105 comments per game. The majority of the comments were generally positive ones, directed at the players. Negative comments, although quite infrequent, were directed largely at the referees. Females made more comments than did males, although males made more negative and corrective comments, and females made mostly positive comments. Comments varied significantly as a function of gender and competitive level. Proportionally more negative comments were made at competitive, as opposed to recreational games. An interaction was found for female spectators as their comments varied as a function of both the competitive level and the gender of the players. Results of this study are in direct contrast to media reports of extreme parental violence at youth hockey games, and provide unique information about the role of parental involvement at youth sporting events.