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Wonseok Jang, Yong Jae Ko, Daniel L. Wann and Daehwan Kim

has mostly focused on how sport participation impacts an individual’s happiness and SWB ( Downward & Rasciute, 2011 ; Huang & Humphreys, 2012 ). However, there is a limited understanding of the effect of sport spectatorship on an individual’s happiness, with a few notable exceptions (e.g., Hallmann

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Susan Lagaert, Mieke Van Houtte and Henk Roose

considered a male-dominated domain and gender-typed as belonging to masculine sphere ( Messner, 2011 ; Smith & Leaper, 2005 ). Because of its competitive (and sometimes violent) nature, not only sports participation but also sports fandom and sport spectatorship—the focus of this contribution—have a

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Scott Tainsky, Brian M. Mills, Zainab Hans and Kyunghee Lee

based on this presents demand as defined by the function: Attendance = f ( E , D , G , R ) . where attendance is a function of economic factors, demographic factors, game factors, and residual preferences. In the context of MiLB spectatorship, economic factors ( E ) are represented by fan income

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Yuhei Inoue, Mikihiro Sato, Kevin Filo, James Du and Daniel C. Funk

absence of a broader empirical approach to consider both pathways and the lack of robust evidence to support each pathway underscore the importance of further exploring the relationship between sport spectatorship and subjective well-being. As such, this research investigates the extent to which

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Annemarie Farrell, Janet S. Fink and Sarah Fields

While women are increasingly becoming vested fans of men’s football, baseball, hockey, and basketball, the perceived barriers—sociological, psychological and practical—to watching women’s sports still appear formidable for many female fans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the lack of female consumption of women’s sport through the voices and perspectives of female spectators of men’s sport. Based on interviews with female season ticket holders of men’s collegiate basketball who had not attended women’s basketball games for at least 5 years, the most robust theme to emerge was the profound male influence in the spectator lives of women. This influence was a lifelong phenomenon spanning generations, beginning with grandfathers and brothers and continuing through husbands and sons. Other factors combined with this strong influence to block participants’ consumption of women’s sport. These include a lack of awareness and access to women’s sport and the existence of socializing agents who empasized and prioritized male leisure interests.

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Catherine Palmer and Kirrilly Thompson

In this article we examine the cultural practices of a group of South Australian football supporters known as the “Grog Squad.” While hard drinking is undeniably a central part of this group of exclusively male fans, being a “Groggie” is much more than just being in a boozy boys club. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork undertaken throughout the 2005 South Australian football season, as well as Internet research, we argue that the style of support engaged in by the Grog Squad represents a paradox for how we typically understand football fans. On the one hand, much of the language and behavior of the Grog Squad is characteristic of the aggressive masculinity common in male contact sports. On the other, being a Groggie provides access to a range of resources, benefits, networks, and supports that confound many of the popular assumptions about male social relationships in sport. To explain the arrant sexism and homophobia of the Grog Squad simply in terms of hegemonic masculinity is to obscure the very real social supports and connections (best described as social capital) that are often overlooked in studies of male sports fans.

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Yong Jae Ko, Yonghwan Chang, Wonseok Jang, Michael Sagas and John Otto Spengler

Sport spectating and participation are common leisure-time activities in contemporary society. In the United States, spectatorship is one of the most prominent popular activities with millions of fans enjoying live sporting events on broadcast and cable TV. According to the Nielsen report

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Margaret Carlisle Duncan and Barry Brummett

Although scholars have increasingly turned their attention to sport spectatorship, few have examined the particular appeals of television sports spectatorship. This study explains the pleasures of televised sports viewing by building on the work of media theorists. In particular, it argues that three types of specular pleasure (fetishism, voyeurism, narcissism) are found in televised sports. Further, it identifies discursive, technological, and social dimensions of televised sport spectating as the sources of those visual pleasures. The voyeurism, fetishism, and narcissism of televised sport are illustrated with examples drawn from videotapes of the 1988 Winter Olympic Games.

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Brad D. Carlson and D. Todd Donavan

By integrating social identity theory with brand personality, the authors test a model of how perceptions of human brands affect consumer’s level of cognitive identification. The findings suggest that consumers view athletes as human brands with unique personalities. Additional findings demonstrate that athlete prestige and distinctiveness leads to the evaluation of athlete identification. Once consumers identified with the athlete, they were more likely to feel an emotional attachment to the athlete, identify with the athlete’s team, purchase team-related paraphernalia and increase their team-related viewership habits. The findings extend previous research on human brands and brand personalities in sports. Marketers can use the information gleaned from this study to better promote products that are closely associated with well-recognized and attractive athletes, thereby increasing consumer retail spending. In addition, the findings offer new insights to sports marketers seeking to increase team-related spectatorship by promoting the image of easily recognizable athletes.

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Marci D. Cottingham

The study of sport spectatorship has an increasing focus on the importance of fandom beyond fan violence. Fundamental to understanding fan behavior are the meaningful rituals and emotions experienced by fans. In this paper, I use the theoretical work of Randall Collins to examine the ritualistic outcomes of collective effervescence, emotional energy, and group symbols and solidarity among sport fans. I illustrate these concepts using case study data from participant observation of fans of a U.S. football team, the Pittsburgh Steelers, and content analysis of news articles. I extend Collins’ interaction ritual (IR) theory by taking the group as the unit of analysis and analyzing group solidarity beyond situational interactions and typical sport settings, including the significant life events of weddings and funerals. While critiquing Collins’ (2004) a priori portrayal of sports fans, the analysis advances IR theory, improving its utility for understanding sports fan behavior.