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Øyvind Sandbakk

Competitive cross-country (XC) skiing has traditions extending back to the mid-19th century and was included as a men’s event in the first Winter Games in 1924. Since then, tremendous improvements in equipment, track preparation, and knowledge about training have prompted greater increases in XC-skiing speeds than in any other Olympic sport. In response, this commentary focuses on how the training of successful XC skiers has evolved, with interviews and training data from surviving Norwegian world and Olympic XC champions as primary sources. Before 1970, most male champion XC skiers were lumberjacks who ran or skied long distances to and from felling areas while working long days in the woods. In addition, they trained as much as possible, with increased intensity during the autumn, while less work but more ski-specific training and competitions were done during the winter. Until the 1970s, few XC skiers were women, whom coaches believed tolerated less training than men did. Today’s XC skiers are less physically active, but the influence of both science and the systematic approaches of former athletes and coaches have gradually taught XC skiers to adopt smarter, more goal-oriented training practices. Although the very high VO2max of world-class XC skiers has remained the same since the 1960s, new events in modern XC skiing have additionally required superior upper-body power, high-speed techniques, and tactical flexibility. These elements also emerge in the training of today’s best skiers; women’s physiological capacities and training routines especially seem to have improved dramatically.

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Øyvind Sandbakk and Hans-Christer Holmberg

Cross-country (XC) skiing is one of the most demanding of endurance sports, involving protracted competitions on varying terrain employing a variety of skiing techniques that require upper- and/or lower-body work to different extents. Through more effective training and extensive improvements in equipment and track preparation, the speed of cross-country ski races has increased more than that of any other winter Olympic sport, and, in addition, new types of racing events have been introduced. To a certain extent this has altered the optimal physiological capacity required to win, and the training routines of successful skiers have evolved accordingly. The long-standing tradition of researchers working closely with XC-ski coaches and athletes to monitor progress, improve training, and refine skiing techniques has provided unique physiological insights revealing how these athletes are approaching the upper limits of human endurance. This review summarizes current scientific knowledge concerning the demands involved in elite XC skiing, as well as the physiological capacity and training routines of the best athletes.

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Brian J. McMorrow, Massimiliano Ditroilo and Brendan Egan

, Kellis S . The effects of resisted sled-pulling sprint training on acceleration and maximum speed performance . J Sports Med Phys Fitness . 2005 ; 45 : 284 – 290 . PubMed ID: 16230978 16230978 14. Harrison AJ , Bourke G . The effect of resisted sprint training on speed and strength performance

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Mary Hellen Morcelli, Dain Patrick LaRoche, Luciano Fernandes Crozara, Nise Ribeiro Marques, Camilla Zamfolini Hallal, Mauro Gonçalves and Marcelo Tavella Navega

recreational physical activity weekly. The research was approved by the university ethics committee for the use of human subjects and all participants signed an informed consent form. Subjects performed a limb dominance test to identify the test leg, and were assessed for walking gait speed and strength. The

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Mário A.M. Simim, Marco Túlio de Mello, Bruno V.C. Silva, Dayane F. Rodrigues, João Paulo P. Rosa, Bruno Pena Couto and Andressa da Silva

in athletes with spinal cord injury who need to push a wheelchair with speed and strength ( Goosey-Tolfrey & Price, 2010 ). The use of biochemical, hormonal, and/or immune measures as indicators of IL is not justified in wheelchair modalities because the research in this area is limited to one

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Martin Buchheit, Mathieu Lacome, Yannick Cholley and Ben Michael Simpson

.5 (0.1) 0.7 (0.1) Strength vs Speed likely small, Speed vs Endurance almost likely very large, and Strength vs Endurance very likely large Trimps, AU 463 (54) 584 (49) 436 (43) All very large and almost likely but Speed vs Strength (likely small) Time >90% HR max 9 (12) 16 (8) 10 (8) Speed and Strength

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Andy Gillham, Michael Doscher, Jim Krumpos, Michelle Martin Diltz, Nate Moe, Shepard Allen and Reese Bridgeman

group-level requirements and responded to the series of 10 questions. The coaches, their titles, and the schools and NCAA division represented are: (a) Reese Bridgeman, Director of Athletic Performance, Bellhaven University – Division III; (b) Michael Doscher, Head Speed and Strength and Conditioning

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Jeffrey D. Simpson, Ludmila Cosio-Lima, Eric M. Scudamore, Eric K. O’Neal, Ethan M. Stewart, Brandon L. Miller, Harish Chander and Adam C. Knight

. 2014 ; 28 ( 9 ): 2452 – 2460 . PubMed ID: 24626140 doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000000452 24626140 20. Harrison AJ , Bourke G . The effect of resisted sprint training on speed and strength performance in male rugby players . J Strength Cond Res . 2009 ; 23 ( 1 ): 275 – 283 . PubMed ID: 19125101

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Øyvind Skattebo, Thomas Losnegard and Hans Kristian Stadheim

pole push-off. The horizontal line with asterisks (*) indicates significant differences between groups (unpaired t test, P  < .05). #Tendency to difference between groups (.05 < P ≤ .1). Training Data The annual endurance, speed, and strength training are reported in Table  4 . Due to the low