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Matthew I. Black, Joseph C. Handsaker, Sam J. Allen, Stephanie E. Forrester, and Jonathan P. Folland

Distance-running performance is dependent on the speed that can be sustained for the duration of an event. This speed is determined by the interaction of several physiological factors 1 that include maximal rate of oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 max ), anaerobic capacity, fractional utilization of V ˙ O

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Sergio L. Molina and David F. Stodden

practices of practitioners (e.g., physical educators, coaches, and other movement educators). Fitts’ law ( 1954 ) and its application, the speed-accuracy trade-off, are well-known principles that can be applied to many fundamental movements and performance ( Urbin, Stodden, Fischman, & Weimer, 2011

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Mark Hollands, Fuengfa Khobkhun, Amornpan Ajjimaporn, Rebecca Robins, and Jim Richards

body play an important role in prompting the typical top–down reorientation sequence in healthy adults. 1 – 3 Furthermore, the timing and nature of eye movements and the characteristics of the relative rotation between body segments observed during turning is dependent on the speed and size of

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Robert W. Meyers, Jonathan L. Oliver, Michael G. Hughes, John B. Cronin, and Rhodri S. Lloyd

The purpose of this study was to examine the natural development of the mechanical features of sprint performance in relation to maturation within a large cohort of boys. Three hundred and thirty-six boys (11-15 years) were analyzed for sprint performance and maturation. Maximal speed, stride length (SL), stride frequency (SF), flight time (FT) and contact time (CT) were assessed during a 30m sprint. Five maturation groups (G1-5) were established based on age from peak height velocity (PHV) where G1=>2.5years pre-PHV, G2 = 2.49-1.5years pre-PHV, G3 = 1.49-0.5years pre-PHV, G4 = 0.49years pre- to 0.5years post-PHV and G5 = 0.51-1.5years post-PHV. There was no difference in maximal speed between G1, G2 and G3 but those in G4 and G5 were significantly faster (p < .05) than G1-3. Significant increases (p < .05) in SL were observed between groups with advancing maturation, except G4 and G5 (p > .05). SF decreased while CT increased (both p < .05) between G1, G2 and G3, but no further significant changes (p > .05) were observed for either variable between G3, G4 and G5. While G1-3 increased their SL, concomitant decreases in SF and increases in CT prevented them from improving maximal speed. Maximal sprint speed appears to develop around and post-PHV as SF and CT begin to stabilize, with increases in maximal sprint speed in maturing boys being underpinned by increasing SL.

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Johan Cassirame, Hervé Sanchez, and Jean-Benoit Morin

is a jumping event, accelerated running mechanics and performance are of utmost importance and several studies have identified that run-up terminal speed (Spt) is a major determinant of overall pole-vault performance. 9 – 13 A preliminary study conducted recently 14 showed a possibly beneficial

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Anita Kulik, Ewelina Rosłoniec, Przemysław Madejski, Anna Spannbauer, Leszek Zguczyński, Piotr Mika, and Dorota Pilecka

-living walking speed and the maximal distance covered by the participant in a specific amount of time. Similar data can be obtained using pedometers by extrapolating approximate distances walked with the total amount of steps, while quick clinical assessment of gait speed may be applied to estimate distance

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Yann Le Mansec, Jérôme Perez, Quentin Rouault, Julie Doron, and Marc Jubeau

correlation between a specific aerobic field test and the ranking of the players. By contrast, Phomsoupha and Laffaye 4 showed that the speed of the shuttlecock evolved linearly with the level of the players, allowing to differentiate high skilled and elite players. Similarly, Sakurai and Ohtsuki 5 showed

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Gareth N. Sandford, Simon Pearson, Sian V. Allen, Rita M. Malcata, Andrew E. Kilding, Angus Ross, and Paul B. Laursen

differentials (delta) were assessed using magnitude-based inferences. 6 The threshold values used for effect-size (ES) statistics were ≥0.2 (small), >0.6 (moderate), >1.2 (large), and >2.0 (very large). The smallest worthwhile change (SWC) for lap differential and 100-m sector speed over time was determined as

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Jake Schuster, Dan Howells, Julien Robineau, Anthony Couderc, Alex Natera, Nick Lumley, Tim J. Gabbett, and Nick Winkelman

study of the 2013 men’s World Rugby Sevens Series, competitors cover nearly 1500 m per match, of which over 250 m are at high speed (>5 m/s), with a mean peak velocity of over 8 m/s. On average players take 3.5 ± 2.5 ball carries, 2.4 ± 2.3 tackles, and 2.3 ± 3.9 total rucks per match in pool play, with

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João Ribeiro, Luís Teixeira, Rui Lemos, Anderson S. Teixeira, Vitor Moreira, Pedro Silva, and Fábio Y. Nakamura

change of direction (COD) speed tests. 2 The efficacy of resistance and plyometric training (PT) modes is so extensively recognized that some authors argue that further studies comparing the effect of different conditioning programs against a control group that only perform soccer training are not