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Øyvind Sandbakk

Competitive cross-country (XC) skiing has traditions extending back to the mid-19th century and was included as a men’s event in the first Winter Games in 1924. Since then, tremendous improvements in equipment, track preparation, and knowledge about training have prompted greater increases in XC-skiing speeds than in any other Olympic sport. In response, this commentary focuses on how the training of successful XC skiers has evolved, with interviews and training data from surviving Norwegian world and Olympic XC champions as primary sources. Before 1970, most male champion XC skiers were lumberjacks who ran or skied long distances to and from felling areas while working long days in the woods. In addition, they trained as much as possible, with increased intensity during the autumn, while less work but more ski-specific training and competitions were done during the winter. Until the 1970s, few XC skiers were women, whom coaches believed tolerated less training than men did. Today’s XC skiers are less physically active, but the influence of both science and the systematic approaches of former athletes and coaches have gradually taught XC skiers to adopt smarter, more goal-oriented training practices. Although the very high VO2max of world-class XC skiers has remained the same since the 1960s, new events in modern XC skiing have additionally required superior upper-body power, high-speed techniques, and tactical flexibility. These elements also emerge in the training of today’s best skiers; women’s physiological capacities and training routines especially seem to have improved dramatically.

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Øyvind Sandbakk and Hans-Christer Holmberg

Cross-country (XC) skiing is one of the most demanding of endurance sports, involving protracted competitions on varying terrain employing a variety of skiing techniques that require upper- and/or lower-body work to different extents. Through more effective training and extensive improvements in equipment and track preparation, the speed of cross-country ski races has increased more than that of any other winter Olympic sport, and, in addition, new types of racing events have been introduced. To a certain extent this has altered the optimal physiological capacity required to win, and the training routines of successful skiers have evolved accordingly. The long-standing tradition of researchers working closely with XC-ski coaches and athletes to monitor progress, improve training, and refine skiing techniques has provided unique physiological insights revealing how these athletes are approaching the upper limits of human endurance. This review summarizes current scientific knowledge concerning the demands involved in elite XC skiing, as well as the physiological capacity and training routines of the best athletes.

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Laurent Schmitt, Stéphane Bouthiaux, and Grégoire P. Millet

. Training and Performance Characteristics The training characteristics were extracted from his training log and are reported as yearly volume (in hours) of LIT, MIT, HIT, and speed and strength training. These intensity zones were defined regularly from incremental tests performed by the French team under

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Anna Posbergh and Shannon Jette

environment informed by double standards and gendered “norms” despite some elements of progress toward their greater acceptance in a sex-integrated space. The New “Norm”: Accepting Sex-Integrated Environments Although participants acknowledged the pacing, speed, and strength differences between male and

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Matheus Barbalho, Ana Francisca Rozin Kleiner, Bianca Callegari, Ramon Costa de Lima, Givago da Silva Souza, Anselmo de Athayde Costa e Silva, and Victor Silveira Coswig

single-leg jump, with the knee slightly flexed and the body projecting vertically with the greatest speed and strength as possible, reaching the maximum height (flight instant). The same procedure was performed by the opposite lower limb, being performed alternately, 3 times for each side. Statistical

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Eleftherios Paraskevopoulos, Theocharis Simeonidis, Charilaos Tsolakis, Panagiotis Koulouvaris, and Maria Papandreou

as it placed the upper limbs to extreme functional positions. Based on this hypothesis, these exercises may have led to stimulation of concurrent muscle firing patterns through the muscle reflex arc, which enhanced kinesthesis, with a beneficial effect on speed and strength, as previously shown. 28

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Martin Buchheit, Mathieu Lacome, Yannick Cholley, and Ben Michael Simpson

.5 (0.1) 0.7 (0.1) Strength vs Speed likely small, Speed vs Endurance almost likely very large, and Strength vs Endurance very likely large Trimps, AU 463 (54) 584 (49) 436 (43) All very large and almost likely but Speed vs Strength (likely small) Time >90% HR max 9 (12) 16 (8) 10 (8) Speed and Strength

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Brian J. McMorrow, Massimiliano Ditroilo, and Brendan Egan

, Kellis S . The effects of resisted sled-pulling sprint training on acceleration and maximum speed performance . J Sports Med Phys Fitness . 2005 ; 45 : 284 – 290 . PubMed ID: 16230978 16230978 14. Harrison AJ , Bourke G . The effect of resisted sprint training on speed and strength performance

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Fernando Pareja-Blanco, Eduardo Sáez de Villarreal, Beatriz Bachero-Mena, Ricardo Mora-Custodio, José Antonio Asián-Clemente, Irineu Loturco, and David Rodríguez-Rosell

improving athletic performance . [published online ahead of print April 23, 2019]. J Strength Cond Res . PubMed ID: 31022105 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000003171 31022105 12. Harrison AJ , Bourke G . The effect of resisted sprint training on speed and strength performance in male rugby players . J

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Mary Hellen Morcelli, Dain Patrick LaRoche, Luciano Fernandes Crozara, Nise Ribeiro Marques, Camilla Zamfolini Hallal, Mauro Gonçalves, and Marcelo Tavella Navega

recreational physical activity weekly. The research was approved by the university ethics committee for the use of human subjects and all participants signed an informed consent form. Subjects performed a limb dominance test to identify the test leg, and were assessed for walking gait speed and strength. The