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Hiromune Obayashi, Yukio Urabe, Yuki Yamanaka and Ryo Okuma


Randomized controlled study.




26 healthy swimmers randomly assigned to an exercise (n = 13; Ex) or control group (n = 13; Cont).


The Ex group performed respiratory-muscle exercises for 10 min thrice a week for 4 wk.


Respiratory-muscle exercises are used not only in the rehabilitation of patients with respiratory disease but also in endurance training for athletes. Respiration involves the back and abdominal muscles. These muscles are 1 of the elements responsible for posture control, which is integral to injury prevention and physical performance. However, the effects of respiratory-muscle exercise on posture remain unclear.


To examine the potential of respiratory-muscle exercise for improving posture.

Main Outcome Measures:

Spinal curvature, pulmonary function, and trunk-muscle strength were measured for both the groups at baseline and after 4 wk. The data were compared between the Ex and Cont groups with Mann–Whitney U test and preintervention and postintervention within groups with a Wilcoxon signed rank-sum test.

Results and Conclusion:

The spinal curvature was significantly different in the Ex group, indicating a decrease in the thoracic (−13.1%, P < .01) and lumbar (−17.7%, P < .05) angles. The Ex group presented with lower thoracic (−8.6%) and lumbar (−20.9%) angles at postexercise than the Cont group (P < .05). With respect to trunk-muscle strength, only trunk-flexion strength significantly increased from pretest to posttest in the Ex group (P < .05). For pulmonary function, forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1.0 s were significantly increased after 4 wk in the Ex group (P < .05). The results suggest that respiratory-muscle exercise straightened the spine, leading to good posture control, possibly because of contraction of abdominal muscles.

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Angélica Ginés-Díaz, María Teresa Martínez-Romero, Antonio Cejudo, Alba Aparicio-Sarmiento and Pilar Sainz de Baranda

Standing position Slump sitting position Maximum flexion of the trunk (sit and reach test) Spinal curve n % n % n % Thoracic 10 43.48 13 56.52 6 26.09 Lumbar 12 52.17 10 43.48 8 34.78 Discussion The purposes of this study were to analyze sagittal spinal alignment by disciplines and its relationship to

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Yong Wook Kim, Na Young Kim, Won Hyuk Chang and Sang Chul Lee

breathing. When performed successfully, then same exercise on uneven surface. 3. Bird-dog (extensor challenge)  Hollow/Bracing Quadruped with palm and knee support with neutral spinal alignment, unilateral arm or leg raises, progressing to simultaneous reciprocal arm and leg raise. Slowly extend with core

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Yumeng Li, Rumit S. Kakar, Marika A. Walker, Yang-Chieh Fu, Timothy S. Oswald, Cathleen N. Brown and Kathy J. Simpson

Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common spinal deformity and affects 2% to 4% of children between 10- and 16-years-old. 1 AIS brings about issues with spinal alignment across all planes, although the primary deformity is lateral curvature. 1 Spinal fusion for AIS (SF-AIS) largely

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Yi-Ju Tsai, Chieh-Chie Chia, Pei-Yun Lee, Li-Chuan Lin and Yi-Liang Kuo

ability of the core muscles to generate and maintain force; by contrast, core stability is the ability to maintain spinal alignment during execution of forceful trunk movement or in response to a perturbation. 18 To maximize the benefits of the core training, it has been suggested that the program should

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Ece Acar, Tamer Çankaya and Serkan Öner

, 122 ( 8 ), 1858 – 1861 . PubMed ID: 22645067 doi: 10.1002/lary.23376 Masaki , M. , Ikezoe , T. , Fukumoto , Y. , Minami , S. , Aoyama , J. , Ibuki , S. , . . . Ichihashi , N. ( 2016 ). Association of walking speed with sagittal spinal alignment, muscle thickness, and echo intensity