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Rodrigo Rodrigues Gomes Costa, Rodrigo Luiz Carregaro and Frederico Ribeiro Neto

One form of spinal cord injury (SCI) classification is to stratify into 2 groups: tetraplegia (TP), which involves injuries between the cervical vertebrae (C6–C8), and paraplegia, between the thoracic, lumbar, and sacral vertebrae (T1–L2). 1 , 2 This division is by the American Spinal Injury

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Levy Silva Rezende, Markus Brendon Lima and Emanuel Péricles Salvador

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a traumatic event, with strong implications for the affected individuals, 1 and is frequently associated with considerable changes in individual function and socialization. 2 In the United States, the incidence of SCI is 17,000 per year. 3 However, reliable data in

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Sunghoon Shin and Jacob J. Sosnoff

is a need for further investigations designed to test the predictions of RM and TM components directly. Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) serve as an ideal clinical population in which the predictions of the RM and TM hypothesis can be tested. Persons with complete injury at the thoracic level

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Morteza Sadeghi, Gholamali Ghasemi and Mohammadtaghi Karimi

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is defined as damage to the spinal cord which influences the patient’s abilities for standing, walking, and doing their daily activities. 1 The incidence of this injury varies from one country to another. 2 , 3 It has been shown that in the United States, the annual

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Kendra R. Todd and Kathleen A. Martin Ginis

The rationale for the intervention is flawed (i.e., to decrease sedentary behavior in people with spinal cord injury). A person with SCI, by definition, will always be sedentary. — Anonymous journal reviewer People living with spinal cord injury (SCI) are at the lowest end of the physical

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Kelly Pritchett, Robert C. Pritchett, Lauren Stark, Elizabeth Broad and Melissa LaCroix

always equate to improved performance ( Close et al., 2013 ). More recent studies suggest that a substantial portion of elite athletes with a chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) have insufficient/deficient 25(OH)D status ( Barbonetti et al., 2016 ; Flueck et al., 2016a ; Pritchett et al., 2016 ), which

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Musa L. Audu and Ronald J. Triolo

The contributions of intrinsic (passive) and extrinsic (active) properties of the human trunk, in terms of the simultaneous actions about the hip and spinal joints, to the control of sagittal and coronal seated balance were examined. Able-bodied (ABD) and spinal-cord-injured (SCI) volunteers sat on a moving platform which underwent small amplitude perturbations in the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) directions while changes to trunk orientation were measured. A linear parametric model that related platform movement to trunk angle was fit to the experimental data by identifying model parameters in the time domain. The results showed that spinal cord injury leads to a systematic reduction in the extrinsic characteristics, while most of the intrinsic characteristics were rarely affected. In both SCI and ABD individuals, passive characteristics alone were not enough to maintain seated balance. Passive stiffness in the ML direction was almost 3 times that in the AP direction, making more extrinsic mechanisms necessary for balance in the latter direction. Proportional and derivative terms of the extrinsic model made the largest contribution to the overall output from the active system, implying that a simple proportional plus derivative (PD) controller structure will suffice for restoring seated balance after spinal cord injury.

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Roberta Gaspar, Natalia Padula, Tatiana B. Freitas, João P.J. de Oliveira and Camila Torriani-Pasin

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating health condition, which is associated with permanent disability and reduction in life expectancy. 1 Global data state a high annual incidence between 12.1 and 57.8 per million inhabitants, the same with prevalence that ranges between 236 and 1009 per

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Gary J. Farkas, Marika A. Pitot and David R. Gater Jr.

Following a spinal cord injury (SCI), alterations in body composition, limited mobility and physical activity, anabolic deficiencies, and sympathetic nervous system blunting lead to an elevated risk of morbidity and mortality ( Farkas & Gater, 2017 ). The loss of metabolically active lean body mass

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Frederico Ribeiro Neto, Rodrigo Rodrigues Gomes Costa, Ricardo Tanhoffer, Martim Bottaro and Rodrigo Luiz Carregaro

Strength training is one of the most common interventions employed to increase functional independence during the rehabilitation of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) 1 , 2 and is considered essential for this purpose. 3 Previous studies have demonstrated that strength training is capable