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Hiromune Obayashi, Yukio Urabe, Yuki Yamanaka and Ryo Okuma


Randomized controlled study.




26 healthy swimmers randomly assigned to an exercise (n = 13; Ex) or control group (n = 13; Cont).


The Ex group performed respiratory-muscle exercises for 10 min thrice a week for 4 wk.


Respiratory-muscle exercises are used not only in the rehabilitation of patients with respiratory disease but also in endurance training for athletes. Respiration involves the back and abdominal muscles. These muscles are 1 of the elements responsible for posture control, which is integral to injury prevention and physical performance. However, the effects of respiratory-muscle exercise on posture remain unclear.


To examine the potential of respiratory-muscle exercise for improving posture.

Main Outcome Measures:

Spinal curvature, pulmonary function, and trunk-muscle strength were measured for both the groups at baseline and after 4 wk. The data were compared between the Ex and Cont groups with Mann–Whitney U test and preintervention and postintervention within groups with a Wilcoxon signed rank-sum test.

Results and Conclusion:

The spinal curvature was significantly different in the Ex group, indicating a decrease in the thoracic (−13.1%, P < .01) and lumbar (−17.7%, P < .05) angles. The Ex group presented with lower thoracic (−8.6%) and lumbar (−20.9%) angles at postexercise than the Cont group (P < .05). With respect to trunk-muscle strength, only trunk-flexion strength significantly increased from pretest to posttest in the Ex group (P < .05). For pulmonary function, forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1.0 s were significantly increased after 4 wk in the Ex group (P < .05). The results suggest that respiratory-muscle exercise straightened the spine, leading to good posture control, possibly because of contraction of abdominal muscles.

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Bruna M.A. Saraiva, Geferson S. Araujo, Evandro F. Sperandio, Alberto O. Gotfryd, Victor Z. Dourado and Milena C. Vidotto

function, and this worsens with increasing severity of spinal curvature. Patients with AIS walked shorter distance during ISWT when compared with healthy adolescents. Patients with AIS > 45° and AIS < 45° walked, respectively, 156 m and 117 m less than the control group. Furthermore, we observed that

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Mark D. Hecimovich and Norman J. Stomski

Lumbar lordosis may be a risk factor for injury in junior-level athletes involved in sport which requires excessive amounts of extension. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between lumbar lordosis in junior-level cricket players with and without previous low back injury. Results demonstrated a statistically significant difference in lumbar lordosis between the two groups (LBI = 42.53 ± 9.10°; no LBI = 30.33 ± 8.36°; p < .01), with previous lower back injury accounting for 32% variation in lumbar lordosis (p < .01). The results indicate lumbar lordosis may be an issue worth examining in those athletes who partake in sports which have high levels of extension; but, as there is no accepted definition to lumbar postures, it is difficult to accurately interpret measurement results.

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Morin Lang-Tapia, Vanesa España-Romero, Juan Anelo and Manuel J. Castillo

This aim was to examine differences on lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis in standing position by gender, age and weight status in healthy subjects using a noninvasive method. A total of 297 women (36.6 ± 7.3 years) and 362 men (39.8 ± 7.5 years) participated in this study. Participants were categorized according to the international BMI (kg/m2) cut-off points. Age was stratified by ten years increments starting from 20 y. Men showed smaller lumbar lordosis (17.3 ± 9.3) and larger thoracic kyphosis (42.8 ± 8.8°) than women (29.6 ± 11.3 and 40.4 ± 9.5° respectively; both p < .001). Older groups presented smaller lumbar lordosis and larger thoracic kyphosis values compared with the 20–29 y group (20.9 ± 10.4, 20.8 ± 11.2 and 23.6 ± 12.6° for ≥50, 40–49 and 30–39 y, respectively vs. 26.7 ± 12.2° for 20–29 y in lumbar lordosis and 42.6 ± 9.8, 42.61 ± 8.7 and 41.8 ± 8.9° for ≥50, 40–49 and 30–39 y, respectively vs. 37.5 ± 10.9° for 20–29 y in thoracic kyphosis; both p < .05). Finally, overweight and obese groups showed smaller lumbar lordosis (19.4 ± 11.1 and 20.9 ± 11.8° respectively) and larger thoracic kyphosis values (42.7 ± 8.9 and 42.8 ± 9.4° respectively) compared with nonoverweight participants (25.1 ± 12.4 and 40.6 ± 9.2° for lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis respectively; all p < .05). However, when gender, age and weight status were take into account all together only gender seems to influence the lumbar lordosis curvature. The results of this study suggest that gender could be the only determinant factor of lumbar lordosis in healthy people.

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Angélica Ginés-Díaz, María Teresa Martínez-Romero, Antonio Cejudo, Alba Aparicio-Sarmiento and Pilar Sainz de Baranda

(S1–S5), and coccyx constituted by 4 or 5 vertebrae. 1 Spinal curvatures are designed to support loads within normal physiological parameters. 2 – 4 However, when curvatures are outside these normal limits, the spine is more likely to be damaged while it is supporting a load. 2 , 5 , 6 Several

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Daniel H.K. Chow and Newman M.L. Lau

Spinal motor control can provide substantial insight for the causes of spinal musculoskeletal disorders. Its dynamic characteristics however, have not been fully investigated. The objective of this study is to explore the dynamic characteristics of spinal motor control via the fractional Brownian motion mathematical technique. Spinal curvatures and repositioning errors of different spinal regions in 64 children age 11- or 15-years old during upright stance were measured and compared for the effects of age and gender. With the application of the fractional Brownian motion analytical technique to the changes of spinal curvatures, distinct persistent movement behaviors could be determined, which could be interpreted physiologically as open-loop behaviors. Moreover, it was found that the spinal motor control of 15-year-old children was better than that of 11-year-old children with smaller repositioning error and less curvature variability as well as shorter response time and smaller curvature deformation.

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José M. Muyor, Pedro A. López-Miñarro and Fernando Alacid

The aim was to determine the relationship between hamstring muscle extensibility and sagittal spinal curvatures and pelvic tilt in cyclists while adopting several postures. A total of 75 male cyclists were recruited for this study (34.79 ± 9.46 years). Thoracic and lumbar spine and pelvic tilt were randomly measured using a Spinal Mouse. Hamstring muscle extensibility was determined in both legs by a passive knee extension test. Low relationships were found between hamstring muscle extensibility and spinal parameters (thoracic and lumbar curvature, and pelvic tilt) in standing, slumped sitting, and on the bicycle (r = .19; P > .05). Significant but low relationships were found in maximal trunk flexion with knees flexed (r = .29; P < .05). In addition, in the sit-and-reach test, low and statistically significant relationships were found between hamstring muscle extensibility for thoracic spine (r = –.23; P = .01) and (r = .37; P = .001) for pelvic tilt. In conclusion, hamstring muscle extensibility has a significant relationship in maximal trunk flexion postures with knees flexed and extended, but there are no relationships while standing or on the bicycle postures.

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Marie Lund Ohlsson, Jonas Danvind and L. Joakim Holmberg

relation to spinal curvature published previously. Joint reactions are difficult to measure in vivo because all alternatives are invasive procedures. For example, lumbar intervertebral disc pressure has been measured by an implanted pressure transducer, 12 and shoulder joint reactions have been measured

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Scott W. Cheatham, Kyle R. Stull and Morey J. Kolber

non-specific low back pain: a single-blind randomized controlled trial . J Rehabil Med . 2011 ; 43 ( 8 ): 689 – 694 . PubMed ID: 21687923 doi:10.2340/16501977-0830 10.2340/16501977-0830 15. Yang J , Seo D . The effects of whole body vibration on static balance, spinal curvature, pain, and

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Hannah Horris, Barton E. Anderson, R. Curtis Bay and Kellie C. Huxel Bliven

.1097/00007632-200201010-00015 15 Bradley H , Esformes J . Breathing pattern disorders and functional movement . Int J Sports Phys Ther . 2014 ; 9 ( 1 ): 28 – 39 . PubMed ID: 24567853 24567853 16 Obayashi H , Urabe Y , Yamanaka Y , Okuma R . Effects of respiratory-muscle exercise on spinal curvature . J Sport