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Rodrigo Rodrigues Gomes Costa, Rodrigo Luiz Carregaro and Frederico Ribeiro Neto

One form of spinal cord injury (SCI) classification is to stratify into 2 groups: tetraplegia (TP), which involves injuries between the cervical vertebrae (C6–C8), and paraplegia, between the thoracic, lumbar, and sacral vertebrae (T1–L2). 1 , 2 This division is by the American Spinal Injury

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Levy Silva Rezende, Markus Brendon Lima and Emanuel Péricles Salvador

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a traumatic event, with strong implications for the affected individuals, 1 and is frequently associated with considerable changes in individual function and socialization. 2 In the United States, the incidence of SCI is 17,000 per year. 3 However, reliable data in

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Sunghoon Shin and Jacob J. Sosnoff

is a need for further investigations designed to test the predictions of RM and TM components directly. Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) serve as an ideal clinical population in which the predictions of the RM and TM hypothesis can be tested. Persons with complete injury at the thoracic level

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Morteza Sadeghi, Gholamali Ghasemi and Mohammadtaghi Karimi

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is defined as damage to the spinal cord which influences the patient’s abilities for standing, walking, and doing their daily activities. 1 The incidence of this injury varies from one country to another. 2 , 3 It has been shown that in the United States, the annual

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Kendra R. Todd and Kathleen A. Martin Ginis

The rationale for the intervention is flawed (i.e., to decrease sedentary behavior in people with spinal cord injury). A person with SCI, by definition, will always be sedentary. — Anonymous journal reviewer People living with spinal cord injury (SCI) are at the lowest end of the physical

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Kelly Pritchett, Robert C. Pritchett, Lauren Stark, Elizabeth Broad and Melissa LaCroix

always equate to improved performance ( Close et al., 2013 ). More recent studies suggest that a substantial portion of elite athletes with a chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) have insufficient/deficient 25(OH)D status ( Barbonetti et al., 2016 ; Flueck et al., 2016a ; Pritchett et al., 2016 ), which

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Roberta Gaspar, Natalia Padula, Tatiana B. Freitas, João P.J. de Oliveira and Camila Torriani-Pasin

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating health condition, which is associated with permanent disability and reduction in life expectancy. 1 Global data state a high annual incidence between 12.1 and 57.8 per million inhabitants, the same with prevalence that ranges between 236 and 1009 per

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Gary J. Farkas, Marika A. Pitot and David R. Gater Jr.

Following a spinal cord injury (SCI), alterations in body composition, limited mobility and physical activity, anabolic deficiencies, and sympathetic nervous system blunting lead to an elevated risk of morbidity and mortality ( Farkas & Gater, 2017 ). The loss of metabolically active lean body mass

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Frederico Ribeiro Neto, Rodrigo Rodrigues Gomes Costa, Ricardo Tanhoffer, Martim Bottaro and Rodrigo Luiz Carregaro

Strength training is one of the most common interventions employed to increase functional independence during the rehabilitation of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) 1 , 2 and is considered essential for this purpose. 3 Previous studies have demonstrated that strength training is capable

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Rangasamy Suresh Babu, P. Anand, Mathew Jeraud, P. Periasamy and A. Namasivayam

Experimental studies concerning the analysis of locomotor behavior in spinal cord injury research are widely performed in rodent models. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the degree of functional recovery in reflex components and bipedal locomotor behavior of bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata) after spinal contusive injury. Six monkeys were tested for various reflex components (grasping, righting, hopping, extension withdrawal) and were trained preoperatively to walk in bipedal fashion on the simple and complex locomotor runways (narrow beam, grid, inclined plane, treadmill) of this investigation. The overall performance of the animals’ motor behavior and the functional status of limb movements during bipedal locomotion were graded by the Combined Behavioral Score (CBS) system. Using the simple Allen weight-drop technique, a contusive injury was produced by dropping a 13-g weight from a height of 30 cm to the exposed spinal cord at the T12-L1 vertebral level of the trained monkeys. All the monkeys showed significant impairments in every reflex activity and in walking behavior during the early part of the postoperative period. In subsequent periods, the animals displayed mild alterations in certain reflex responses, such as grasping, extension withdrawal, and placing reflexes, which persisted through a 1-year follow-up. The contused animals traversed locomotor runways—narrow beam, incline plane, and grid runways—with more steps and few errors, as evaluated with the CBS system. Eventually, the behavioral performance of all spinal-contused monkeys recovered to near-preoperative level by the fifth postoperative month. The findings of this study reveal the recovery time course of various reflex components and bipedal locomotor behavior of spinal-contused macaques on runways for a postoperative period of up to 1 year. Our spinal cord research in primates is advantageous in understanding the characteristics of hind limb functions only, which possibly mimic the human motor behavior. This study may be also useful in detecting the beneficial effect of various donor tissue–neuroprotective drugs on the repair of impaired functions in a bipedal primate model of spinal injury.