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Michael Amrhein, Harald Barkhoff, and Elaine M. Heiby

Although research on the psychological correlates of ocean surfing is scarce, substantial anecdotal evidence suggests that the sport offers a uniquely positive experience. Prior research has demonstrated that surfers report fewer symptoms of depression and anxiety than normative groups, but no explanation has been identified. Greater spirituality has been correlated with lower depression and anxiety, and many surfers have described surfing as a spiritual experience, indicating a potential connection. One hundred surfers were recruited from the Hawaiian Islands and the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Participants reported their surfing habits and levels of their spiritual surfing experiences. Standardized tests were used to measure participants’ spirituality, depression, and anxiety levels. Results indicated that surfers reported fewer symptoms of depression and anxiety than most available normative groups. Results also demonstrated that greater spirituality is associated with less depression and more spiritual surfing experiences.

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Trevor J. Egli, Leslee A. Fisher, and Noah Gentner

In this paper, the experiences of nine AASP-certified sport psychology consultants (SPCs) working with athletes who invoke spirituality in their consulting sessions are described. After a brief review of terms and literature, consultants’ own words from interview transcripts are used to illustrate four major themes. These were: (a) SPC definitions of spirituality; (b) SPC definitions of faith: (c) SPC perceived challenges; and (d) spirituality implementation within consulting session. We conclude by addressing why we believe that spirituality is a cultural competence component and why sport psychology consultants should engage with the ongoing development of cultural competency.

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Diane M. Wiese-Bjornstal, Kristin N. Wood, Amanda J. Wambach, Andrew C. White, and Victor J. Rubio

different coping strategies prove useful in managing health challenges, and among them is a reliance on religiosity and spirituality (R/S, Koenig, 2012 ). R/S are often combined because they are closely related, complex constructs “involving cognitive, emotional, behavioral, interpersonal, and

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Nicole T. Gabana, Jeffrey B. Ruser, Mariya A. Yukhymenko-Lescroart, and Jenelle N. Gilbert

Two relatively new areas of exploration in the sport psychology literature are athlete gratitude and athlete spirituality. With the emergence of positive psychology in the 1990s, gratitude became a topic of interest for researchers across various branches of psychology. Gratitude has been examined

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Michael J. Mosley, Desiree’ J. Frierson, Yihan Cheng, and Mark W. Aoyagi

The real world practice of sport and performance psychology will inevitably present the practitioner with performers for whom spirituality is the supreme motivator (Balague, 1999). Spirituality and sport, despite its practical relevance, is an underdeveloped and sometimes misunderstood combination (Nesti, 2007). The aim of this study was to reveal the individual experiences of athletes as they integrate spirituality and their sport participation. Five high level athletes (1 female, 4 male), each holding a Christian worldview were interviewed. A strategically designed interview guide illuminated several key themes, which Watson and Nesti (2005) suggested, would contribute much to the existing literature. Out of these themes, practical implications have been considered for the delivery of sport and performance psychology services to Christian athletes. Evidenced by this study, is the reality that some Christian athletes present a unique perspective through which appropriately tailored sport psychology services can readily precipitate personal excellence in sport and life.

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Nicole T. Gabana, Aaron D’Addario, Matteo Luzzeri, Stinne Soendergaard, and Y. Joel Wong

the individual. While some researchers have examined spirituality among athletes, the spiritual realm tends to be neglected in sport psychology research ( Nesti, 2007 ) even despite the established relationship between spirituality, mental health, and well-being ( Sarkar, Hill, & Parker, 2014 ). A

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Janna LaFountaine

A study of wellness aspects among college student athletes at a mid-sized, church-related, undergraduate, liberal arts college in the upper Midwest was conducted during the 2006-2007 school year. The students were asked by their coaches and team leaders to complete the Wellness Evaluation of Lifestyle tool online. The study sample consisted of 273 college athletes, of which 131 were female and 142 were male. Female college athletes had the highest scores in the following areas: exercise, friendship, and love. The lowest areas were: spirituality, stress Management, nutrition and total wellness. The female athletes scored lower in 14 out of the 20 wellness behavior categories than the male athletes. In the areas of sense of worth, leisure and stress management, female athletes scored significantly lower than the male athletes. Male athletes scored the highest in the areas of exercise, sense of worth and friendship. Male athletes recorded their lowest scores in spirituality, nutrition, work and total wellness. The implications of this study for athletic programs indicate a need to address the specific needs of female athletes compared to male athletes, particularly tactics for dealing with stress, building self-esteem and the use of leisure activities.

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Anthony M.J. Maranise

This article discusses the use of superstition and religious rituals within sport. While the popular view among skeptics seems to be that religious ritual is nothing more than superstition, I argue that while there admittedly are many similarities, there also exist major differences which separate superstition and religious ritual into distinct entities. The realm of sport is one widely known for the numerous exhibitions of both superstition and religious ritual. The examples of sport-related superstition and religious ritual are so numerous that they have even gained noted media attention in the past two decades. Thus, I situate both terms within the practical framework of sport participation. From this foundation, I define both terms in context and begin to examine the effects on athletes’ individual holistic development arguing that religious ritual leads ultimately to a greater holistic development than does superstition. Holistic development is examined in four aspects which are comprised of physiology, emotionality, intellectuality, and spirituality. The positive effects of religious ritual as applied within athletics are mentioned in each aforementioned category. I approach the topic from the perspective of the psychology of religion, sports psychology, as well as Judeo-Christian theological concepts regarding religious ritual. The numerous positive benefits of religious ritual over superstition within athletics lead to a final argument that religious ritual provides significant meaning to the lives of athletes in a way which superstition is simply unable.

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Greggory Ross

few variations—meant to Indigenous cultures prior to colonization. Although he states that Beers “weeded out the barbarous traits associated with Indigenous leisure” (p. 81), he fails to identify what traits Beers found so utterly objectionable. Was it the connection to spirituality beyond

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Cesar R. Torres

such, it “is evidenced not so much in doctrines but in practice, attitude, and experience through being embodied” ( Robinson, 2007 , p. 23). Consequently, spirit refers to that which enlivens and identifies the qualities of oneself or one’s group. Spirituality, then, is related to “the practice and