Sport apparel firms fiercely compete for the sponsorship of international football (soccer) clubs’ kits (shirts, shoes, and other apparel). This competition, along with increased media visibility, has resulted in a significant growth in deal values in recent years. For instance, Adidas announced in
Adrien Bouchet, Thomas W. Doellman, Mike Troilo, and Brian R. Walkup
Merel Walraven, Ruud H. Koning, Tammo H.A. Bijmolt, and Bart Los
Over the last decades, sports sponsorship has become a popular and expensive marketing instrument. However, in business practice, projects are often not evaluated properly and academic research considering both costs and benefits of sponsorship is limited. In response to the concern that investments in sports sponsorship should be made more accountable, we propose data envelopment analysis (DEA) as a method for benchmarking sponsorship efficiency, and illustrate its usefulness by applying it on a sample of 72 major Dutch sports sponsorship projects. We find an average efficiency level of almost 0.3, which implies that the average project would have attained the same results with 30% of its fee if it had been performing as well as its benchmark. The results reveal that 12.5% of the investigated sponsorships are fully efficient. Moreover, we find a high degree of variety in efficiency scores; 37.5% of the projects with an efficiency below 0.1. In addition, we show how DEA scores may be used by sponsor managers to identify peers, which are those projects that attain roughly the same sponsorship outcomes, but at lowest budgets. After estimating the efficiency scores, a second step in the analyses involves investigating which sponsorship characteristics affect sponsorship efficiency. For this purpose, we use the DEA scores as a dependent variable in a Tobit regression model. The findings suggest that sponsorship clutter negatively affects sponsorship efficiency, whereas sponsorship duration has a positive effect.
Marco Visentin, Daniele Scarpi, and Gabriele Pizzi
In this research we develop a comprehensive model of sponsorship effects accounting for behavioral outcomes such as actual purchase, purchase intentions, and word-of-mouth referral intention. We recombine constructs that have been traditionally considered separately into three stages—assessment, elaboration, and behavior. We collect data on actual customers of Nike and Adidas flagship stores during the FIFA World Cup sponsorship. Basing on our results, we provide a consumer-oriented perspective on the role of attitude toward the brand, fit, and involvement with the event in determining customer reaction to sponsorship activities.
P. Monica Chien, Sarah J. Kelly, and Clinton S. Weeks
We conducted an experiment to investigate the impact of sport scandal on consumer attitudes toward a range of sport stakeholders. We examined the effects of fans’ social identity (fan of scandalized team vs. fan of rival team), scandal severity (single perpetrator vs. multiple perpetrators), and the sponsor brand’s response to the scandal (sponsorship retention vs. termination) on consumers’ attitudes toward the implicated team, the scandal perpetrators, the sport, and sponsor brand. We find evidence of differential reactions to scandal reflecting social identity, such that fans support their own team despite increased scandal severity but negatively judge a rival team’s transgressions. Results suggest that where fans are concerned, sponsors may be better served to continue with a sponsorship following scandal than to terminate, even for some forms of severe scandal. However, termination may receive more positive evaluation from rival team fans; hence continuation of sponsorship needs to accompany a tempered approach.
Michael Olejniczak and Thomas J. Aicher
The sponsorship landscape has become increasingly cluttered, making it difficult for brands to stand out amongst ubiquitous sponsors. The National Football League (NFL) and the NFL Super Bowl have exemplified the marketing opportunities, business potential, and sponsorship challenges present in large-scale sporting events. In this case study, we present a fictitious consumer packaged goods beverage company, Staz, and their sponsorship of the NFL Super Bowl. Through the case study, we outline the objectives Staz is attempting to attain through its partnership with the NFL Super Bowl, as well as the activities they employed at national, local and site specific levels. Throughout the case, we present challenges brought on by Staz’s competitors, shortfalls in Staz’s hospitality activities, and the under-utilization of social media during their Super Bowl sponsorship campaign. The reader’s goal is to recognize the activities Staz executed well, while idealizing solutions for the brand’s less effective activation efforts.
Jesse King and Robert Madrigal
Gatorade and FedEx are sponsors of the National Football League (NFL). The former may be thought of as a congruent sponsor because Gatorade’s products are used by players to rehydrate themselves and replace electrolytes lost during a game. By contrast, the FedEx sponsorship is incongruent because
Alixandra N. Krahn
have ( Demers, 2015 ; Jones, Harris, & Miles, 2009 ; Koh, Bloom, Fairhurst, Paiement, & Kee, 2014 ). A more recent suggestion has been sponsorship, where sponsorship is defined as “public support by a powerful, influential person for the advancement and promotion of an individual within whom he or
Jenessa Banwell, Gretchen Kerr, and Ashley Stirling
landscape of women within their field, as well as the use of mentorship initiatives within their field for supporting women. Findings are presented across two main themes: 1) Key features of mentorship and 2) The need for sponsorship. Key Features of Mentorship Interview data revealed key features of
Jonathan A. Jensen and T. Bettina Cornwell
Sponsorship of sport, arts, and entertainment-related organizations has become an essential part of the marketing mix for brands. On a global basis, $60.1 billion was spent by brand marketers on sponsorship in 2016, an increase of 4.6% from 2015 ( International Events Group [IEG], 2017 ). From the
Nicolas Pontes, Vivian Pontes, Hyun Seung Jin, and Chris Mahar
The sponsorship of events, sports, and social causes has become an established and effective communications tool used to promote desirable consumer responses toward sponsor brands. To substantiate its practice, extant literature compiles substantial evidence of the positive effect of sponsorship on