The development of a self-report instrument to measure antisocial sport behavior, labeled the Antisocial Sport Behavior Survey (ASBS), among large and diverse samples of athletes is reported. Grounded in the social cognitive theory of moral thought and action (Bandura, 1991) and interpersonal theory (Horowitz, 2004), this instrument was developed and tested in accordance with the traditions of construct validity and classical test theory (Gehlback & Brinkworth, 2011). In Phase 1, 272 college-aged competitive sport participants confirmed a theoretical structure of antisocial sport behavior including eight factors (hypercompetitive, intimidating, antagonistic, disrespectful, exploitable, overly accommodating, abetting, and melodramatic). Phase 2 reports on item development and the response structure of the instrument. In Phase 3, evidence of structural validity and external validity for the ASBS was established with 340 college-aged competitive sport participants. The ASBS presents as a promising new instrument to advance understanding of antisocial sport behavior acts committed by competitive athletes.
Miranda P. Kaye and Sharleen Hoar
Gashaw Abeza, David Finch, Norm O’Reilly, Eric MacIntosh and John Nadeau
(or not) these KPIs is determined by sport behaviors. For instance, did a season ticket holder renew their tickets (a measure of loyalty; e.g., Bee & Kahle, 2006 ; McDonald & Milne, 1997 ), do fans blog and create Facebook posts about their sport club (as a measure of advocacy; e.g., Abeza & O
This paper describes the issues related to nonassertive sport behavior and suggests interventions for increasing intense play. Differences between aggression and assertion are discussed, as well as nonassertion or the absence of intensity. Sources of nonassertive behavior are presented with regard to teaching appropriate assertive behaviors. Implications for changing attitudes and assertive behaviors through specific applications are discussed.
Lori W. Tucker and Janet B. Parks
This study examined 162 Division I-A intercollegiate athletes’ perceptions of the legitimacy of aggression in sport. Athletes in collision, contact, and noncontact sports completed the Sport Behavior Inventory (Conroy, Silva, Newcomer, Walker, & Johnson, in press). Overall, the athletes did not consider aggression legitimate. A 3 (sport type) x 2 (gender) ANOVA (alpha = .05) with post hoc comparisons showed that athletes in contact and noncontact sports scored lower than those in collision sports. Females scored lower than males. A significant interaction revealed a greater gender difference in noncontact sports than in collision or contact. In noncontact sports, gender role expectations could be the dominant influence for males, while role expectations and in-sport behavioral norms influence females. In collision and contact sports, in-sport norms could reinforce role expectations for males but encourage females to demonstrate behaviors inconsistent with traditional expectations.
Maura B. Rosenthal
This study used a mixed methodology design to examine verbal aggression as an underground or backstage behavior. Male and female basketball players, aged 10 – 19 (N=178), completed both open-ended questions and a modified version of the Sport Behavior Inventory. Younger players found verbal aggression (i.e., trash talking) to be less legitimate for use in sport than high school players (F (2, 175) = 3.54, p < .05). High school players perceived trash talking to be used more often to bully opponents than used as a joke. Results are discussed in the context of a Goffmanian theoretical framework. Implications for coaches, officials, and coaching educators are considered.
Robert J. Brustad
Youth sport research has failed to address the influential role of socialization agents in shaping children's motivational processes in sport. The purpose of this paper is to encourage the integration of socialization influences, particularly parental behaviors, into the study of children's sport motivation. The impact of socialization influences in shaping those cognitions widely regarded to influence children's sport behavior is examined. Special attention is paid to related research in academic settings that identifies the influence of parental socialization patterns upon children's self-perception characteristics, orientations toward achievement, and patterns of motivated behavior. Recommendations are made for incorporating socialization influences into youth sport research within the framework of cognitive-developmental theory.
Jerry R. Thomas, Karen E. French and Charlotte A. Humphries
In this paper we propose that research in motor behavior has failed to meet the obligation of studying how children learn important sport skills. In particular, understanding the specific sport knowledge base is essential to studying skilled sport behavior. To support this view we review the research in the cognitive area relative to the development of expertise. We then attempt to justify why a similar approach is useful for motor behavior researchers and why they should undertake the study of sport skill acquisition. Finally, we offer a paradigm within which sport skill research might take place.
Maureen R. Weiss and Brenda Jo Bredemeier
A developmental theoretical approach is recommended as the most appropriate framework from which to study children's psychosocial experiences in sport. This perspective provides the best understanding of children's sport behaviors by focusing on ontogenetic changes in cognitive abilities which help to describe and explain behavioral variations among individuals. A content analysis of sport psychological research conducted on children and youth over the last decade reveals that few studies selected age groups for investigation that were based on underlying cognitive-developmental criteria. Thus, recommendations emanating from these studies may be misleading or inaccurate. Examples of developmental research from the psychological and sport psychological literature are provided to illustrate the potential for conducting further research on the psychosocial development of children in sport. Finally, guidelines for implementing a systematic line of research in sport psychology from a developmental perspective are outlined.
Marie-Josée Perrier, Shaelyn M. Strachan, Brett Smith and Amy E. Latimer-Cheung
Individuals with acquired physical disabilities report lower levels of athletic identity. The objective of this study was to further explore why athletic identity may be lost or (re)developed after acquiring a physical disability. Seven women and four men (range = 28–60 years) participated in approximately 1-hour-long semi-structured interviews; data were subjected to a narrative analysis. The structural analysis revealed three narrative types. The nonathlete narrative described physical changes in the body as reasons for diminished athletic identity. The athlete as a future self primarily focused on present sport behavior and performance goals such that behavior changes diminished athletic identity. The present self as athlete narrative type focused on the aspects of their present sport involvement, such as feedback from other athletes and skill development, which supported their athletic identity. Implications of these narrative types with respect to sport promotion among people with acquired physical disabilities are discussed.
David Light Shields, Nicole M. LaVoi, Brenda Light Bredemeier and F. Clark Power
The present study examined personal and social correlates of poor sportspersonship among youth sport participants. Male and female athletes (n = 676) in the fifth through eighth grades from three geographic regions of the U.S. participated in the study. Young athletes involved in basketball, soccer, football, hockey, baseball/ softball, or lacrosse completed a questionnaire that tapped poor sportspersonship behaviors and attitudes, team sportspersonship norms, perceptions of the poor sportspersonship behaviors of coaches and spectators, and the sportspersonship norms of coaches and parents. Preliminary analyses revealed significant gender, grade, sport area, and location differences in self-reported unsportspersonlike behavior. The main analysis revealed that self-reported poor sport behaviors were best predicted by perceived coach and spectator behaviors, followed by team norms, sportspersonship attitudes, and the perceived norms of parents and coaches. Results are discussed in relation to the concept of moral atmosphere.