This study examined the impact of repetitive sport video gaming on sport brand attitudes, attitude strength (e.g., attitude accessibility and confidence), and the attitude-behavior relationship. An experiment was designed to demonstrate the attitude-behavior consistency in a hypothetical choice context. The results indicated that repeated exposure to sport video games emulating a real-life sport influences sport attitude and its strength, and subsequently hypothetical choice behavior. The sport attitudes formed on virtual sport experience (e.g., playing sport video games repetitively) are as accessible and held with the same degree of confidence as those formed on direct experience (e.g., watching a sport on TV). The findings also confirmed the moderating effect of attitude confidence on the attitude-behavior relationship.
Yongjae Kim and Stephen Ross
Jimmy Sanderson, Sarah Stokowski and Elizabeth Taylor
Social media play a major role in marketing and promotional efforts in intercollegiate athletics, yet student-athletes are rarely included in these campaigns. This case study analyzes a campaign employed by Temple University’s football program that departed from this norm. During their 2018 spring game, Temple coaches allowed football players to put their Twitter handles on the backs of their jerseys. Through interviews with athletic department staff members and football student-athletes and analysis of football players’ tweets and media framing of this campaign, several positive outcomes emerged. These included how the campaign fostered student-athlete buy-in and generated favorable media coverage for the program. However, analysis also revealed that while many football student-athletes actively used Twitter, they were not fully integrated into the campaign. Implications for including student-athletes’ social media content in athletic department marketing, branding, and promotional efforts are discussed.
Jason Daniels, Thilo Kunkel and Adam Karg
Brands are constantly being introduced or reintroduced in the sport industry, with careful management and measurement of key traits critical to brand positioning as well as the development of customer equity ( Rust, Zeithaml, & Lemon, 2004 ). Specifically, sport brands may include events (e
Sungho Cho, J. Lucy Lee, June Won and Jong Kwan (Jake) Lee
athletes. Adidas can attract a significant number of potential buyers because the brand name and the trefoil logo deliver an array of positive cultural and psychological connotations. Thus, sport branding companies strive to protect such brand knowledge by implementing various marketing strategies and
Stephen D. Ross
Despite the general understanding that spectator sport is a service-oriented product, sport brand equity research has overwhelmingly relied on models pertaining to physical goods and has been slow to acknowledge service marketing principles and the unique characteristics of team sport in understanding this topic. This article proposes a framework for the development of spectator-based brand equity by which the characteristics of spectator sports are recognized through organization, market, and experience-induced antecedents that contribute to spectator-based brand equity. It is suggested that the key components of brand equity for spectator sports consist of brand awareness and brand associations, and the result of these components is revealed in a set of consequences contributing to the value of a sport brand.
Elsa Kristiansen and Antonio S. Williams
This article explored how a renowned LPGA golfer, Suzann Pettersen, has built and leveraged her personal brand. Using the athlete brand-equity model as the theoretical framework, a qualitative case study was built by means of interviews and document analyses. Specifically, this case detailed how Pettersen and her management team endeavored to build and manage her personal brand equity through organization-produced and -controlled brand-communications strategies. The findings of this case shed light on the challenges and opportunities that athletes and their constituents face when managing human brands. Moreover, the findings of this case support the use of previously proposed sport-branding conceptualizations in a real-world setting.
Stephen D. Ross, Keith C. Russell and Hyejin Bang
Few studies in the branding literature have approached brand equity from the sport perspective, and even fewer studies focus on the construct from the consumer viewpoint. The purpose of the current research was to empirically test the spectator-based brand equity (SBBE) model. Using a sample from professional basketball consumers, the results of the study show that the 49-item, 13-construct model has a reasonable fit to the data. The study extends the understanding of sport brand equity from the consumer perspective by presenting empirical support for the model. Several managerial implications are offered as a result of the findings.
Real Madrid Football Club is today the richest sport team in the world and the third most valuable sport brand, according to the latest rankings (e.g., Deloitte, 2010; Forbes 2009). This scholarly commentary proposes the application of a relationship management model of building long-lasting relationships with fans as the main key of Real Madrid’s success. Results of this study highlight that, under the presidency of Florentino Pérez, a public relations approach has been integrated into every strategic decision including the recruitment of players with media appeal; the use of event planning, Internet, social media, promotional tours, and publications; and the display of Real Madrid’s own audiovisual media. The adoption of this model has proven successful despite poor sports results.
Matthew Atencio, Becky Beal and Emily Chivers Yochim
The recent emergence of “skurban” (the fusion of skateboarding and urban) reflects the racially diverse history and culture of skateboarding within urban areas in the United States. Skurban follows on from skateboarding’s integral link with the urban since the 1980s. We aver that urban skateboarding is now underpinned by proliferating racial formations that reproduce a version of masculine authenticity that is highly marketable. Through our interrogation of two mainstream media skate videos featuring Stevie Williams and Paul Rodriguez, we propose that skurban reflects the ascendancy of highly valued urban racial masculinities. These masculinities enhance youth and action sport brand marketing strategies. Simultaneously, these diverse racial masculinities gain currency in alignment with discourses of individual entrepreneurialism, “free market” capitalism, and multicultural notions of diversity.
Nicholas M. Watanabe, Grace Yan and Brian P. Soebbing
Understanding how consumers interact with sport brands on digital platforms is of increasing importance to the sport industry. In this study, through a nexus of consumer behavior and economic literatures, the examination focuses on consumer interest in major league baseball teams on social media platforms from July 2013 to June 2014. Specifically, two generalized least squares regression models were used that considered a variety of factors, including market characteristics, scheduling, and social media use and management. The findings display varying results of short- and long-term consumer interest in teams on Twitter. From this, important theoretical and practical understanding can be derived by considering consumer behavior in the automated “like economy” of social media.