The Sport Commitment Model was further tested using the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method to examine its generalizability to New Zealand’s elite female amateur netball team, the Silver Ferns. Results supported or clarified Sport Commitment Model predictions, revealed avenues for model expansion, and elucidated the functions of perceived competence and enjoyment in the commitment process. A comparison and contrast of the in-depth interview data from the Silver Ferns with previous interview data from a comparable elite team of amateur male athletes allowed assessment of model external validity, tested the generalizability of the underlying mechanisms, and separated gender differences from discrepancies that simply reflected team or idiosyncratic differences.
Tara K. Scanlan, David G. Russell, T. Michelle Magyar and Larry A. Scanlan
Windee M. Weiss
and persistence through an extensive rehabilitation process may become the responsibility for athletic trainers. Applying key concepts from the sport commitment model (SCM), 2 – 4 to sport injury rehabilitation may give the athletic trainer important tools to facilitate motivation and persistence in
Thomas D. Raedeke
This study examined athlete burnout from a commitment perspective, which suggests that athletes can be involved in sport for a combination of reasons related to sport attraction (want to be involved) and sport entrapment (have to be involved). According to this framework, athletes are likely to experience burnout if they are involved in sport primarily for entrapment-related reasons. Female and male age-group swimmers (N = 236) completed a questionnaire that assessed theoretical determinants of commitment and burnout (emotional/ physical exhaustion, swim devaluation, and reduced swim accomplishment). Cluster analysis was used to partition swimmers into profiles based on the theoretical determinants of commitment. Subsequent analyses of variance compared emergent cluster groups on burnout. Results revealed that athletes who exhibited characteristics reflecting sport entrapment generally demonstrated higher burnout scores than athletes who were primarily involved in sport for attraction-related reasons. These results provided support for a commitment perspective as a viable framework for understanding athlete burnout.
Tara K. Scanlan, Paul J. Carpenter, Jeffery P. Simons, Greg W. Schmidt and Bruce Keeler
This article introduces a sport-specific theoretical model of commitment. Sport commitment is defined as a psychological state representing the desire or resolve to continue sport participation. The Sport Commitment Model proposes that sport commitment is determined by sport enjoyment, involvement alternatives, personal investments, social constraints, and involvement opportunities. Greater sport enjoyment, personal investments, social constraints, involvement opportunities, and less attractive involvement alternatives are predicted to lead to higher levels of sport commitment. Constitutive definitions were established for each of the model's components, and questionnaire items were developed. Results from the first empirical test of the model conducted with girls (n = 95) and boys (n = 83) participating in a Little League program showed that the questionnaire items formed reliable scales. Correlational analyses demonstrated that several predictors were related to sport commitment as hypothesized. Stepwise regression findings revealed that sport enjoyment and personal investments were the dominant predictors of commitment for this sample. Together, these two model components accounted for 58% of the sport commitment variance.
Kari Roethlisberger, Vista Beasley, Jeffrey Martin, Brigid Byrd, Krista Munroe-Chandler and Irene Muir
, 2011 ). Three major contributors to young females’ attrition from organized sport include lack of sport commitment, dedication to other competing priorities, and a lack of sport enjoyment ( Brown, Salmon, & Pearson, 2014 ; Crane & Temple, 2015 ). Sport commitment is the psychological condition that
Paul J. Carpenter and Tara K. Scanlan
The purpose of this study was to examine whether changes over time in the determinants of sport commitment would be related to predicted changes in commitment. Male and female (N = 103) high school soccer players completed surveys toward the middle and at the end of their regular season. A simultaneous multiple regression analysis indicated that commitment was significantly predicted by changes in involvement opportunities. Examination of the mean magnitude of changes in the determinants and corresponding changes in commitment using a series of correlated t-tests revealed significant effects for sport enjoyment and involvement opportunities. For those players whose sport enjoyment and involvement opportunities had declined, there was a corresponding decrease in their commitment. For those players whose involvement opportunities had increased, there was a corresponding increase in their commitment. Combined, these results provided support for a priori hypotheses regarding changes in the determinants of commitment over time and corresponding changes in commitment.
Grounded in Scanlan’s sport commitment model (SCM), the purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between feelings of teammate acceptance and sport commitment in a sample of adolescent female volleyball players (N = 209). Despite theoretical justification for including social forms of influence such as social support and social acceptance as direct sources of sport commitment, empirical evidence has not been supportive of this association. Therefore, direct and indirect relationships between teammate acceptance and sport commitment within the SCM were tested. Findings supported the indirect relationship between teammate acceptance and sport commitment through sport enjoyment, personal investments, social constraints, and investment opportunities, accounting for 48% of the variance in sport commitment. It appears that teammate acceptance may be better situated as a distal source of sport commitment, but further research with more diverse samples is necessary. Sports psychologists who can collectively help athletes, coaches, and parents develop responsive interpersonal skills while reducing corporal punishment and aggression tactics can facilitate greater levels of social acceptance.
Maureen R. Weiss, Lissa A. Kimmel and Alan L. Smith
This study examined determinants of junior tennis players’ motivation to continue involvement using the sport commitment model as the theoretical framework (20). Based on the sport enjoyment literature, a version of the original sport commitment model (i.e., all determinants directly predict commitment) and a revised model where enjoyment was a mediator of the relationships between determinants and level of commitment were tested. Tennis players (N = 198; ages 10–18 years) completed self-report questionnaires on the constructs of interest. Hypothesized relationships among variables were tested using structural equation modeling. Results provided support for both the original and mediational models, with enjoyment exerting the strongest effect on tennis commitment in both models. An alternative model was tested where both direct and indirect effects through enjoyment on commitment were specified. The alternative model was accepted as most theoretically appealing because determinants of commitment and sources and consequences of sport enjoyment were accounted for within the larger conceptual model.
Tara K. Scanlan, Paul J. Carpenter, Jeffery P. Simons, Greg W. Schmidt and Bruce Keeler
This article presents our progress in developing a set of survey measures to assess constructs of the Sport Commitment Model in the youth-sport domain. Initial item development was accomplished through extensive literature reviews and the expert evaluations of research professionals, teachers, and young athletes. The items were then examined empirically with three separate samples numbering 140, 178, and 1342 athletes, respectively. For the first two samples, items formed reliable scales for each of the model constructs and separated into distinct factors largely as hypothesized. For the third sample, structural-equation modeling was employed and results supported the measurement of four constructs, with the other two constructs held from the measurement model because of item limitations. Overall, results of the three samples indicate reliable measures that can be used in tests of the Sport Commitment Model across samples of youth-sport athletes representing diversity in age, gender, and ethnicity.
Paul J. Carpenter, Tara K. Scanlan, Jeffery P. Simons and Marci Lobel
This article presents the results of a structural equation modeling analysis of the Sport Commitment Model. This model proposes that commitment is determined by sport enjoyment, involvement alternatives, personal investments, social constraints, and involvement opportunities. Preliminary analyses demonstrated that the model was applicable to both younger (< 12 years old) and older (> 13 years old) athletes, to males and females, and to three different team sports. Structural equation modeling results demonstrated that the proposed model was a good fit of the data (CFI = .981), with the findings accounting for 68% of the commitment variance. As predicted, greater sport enjoyment, involvement opportunities, and the personal investments of time and effort led to greater commitment. Counter to our initial hypothesis, commitment was negatively related to social constraints. Measurement problems led to the involvement alternatives component being excluded from tests of the model presented here, but not from the theoretical model.