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Daniel Funk, Daniel Lock, Adam Karg and Mark Pritchard

Sport consumer behavior (SCB) research continues to grow in both popularity and sophistication. A guiding principle in much of this research has focused on the nature of sport-related experiences and the benefits sport consumers derive from these experiences. This emphasis has generated new knowledge and insights into the needs and wants of sport consumers. Although these efforts have contributed to the field’s understanding of SCB, the vast majority of this research has centered on psychological phenomena and the evaluative and affective components of these sport experiences. Approaches to this work have also narrowed, with SCB research predominately relying on cross-sectional studies and attitudinal surveys to collect information. This has resulted in limited findings that seldom account for how various situational or environmental factors might influence attitudinal data patterns at the individual and group level. This special issues seeks to deepen our understanding of SCB by providing seven papers that demonstrate or validate findings using multiple studies or data collections.

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Yu Kyoum Kim and Galen Trail

This study focused on developing a model to explain relationships among constraints, motivators, and attendance, and empirically test the proposed model within the spectator sport context. The proposed model explained 34% of variance in Attendance. Results showed that Attachment to the Team, an internal motivator, entered first and explained approximately 21% of the variance in attendance. Lack of Success, an internal constraint, entered next and explained almost 10% additional variance. Leisure Alternatives, an external constraint entered next and explained an additional 3%. The ability to properly evaluate constraints and motivators gives sport marketers the opportunity to more effectively serve existing fans, as well as attract new fans.

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Jonathan A. Jensen, Brian A. Turner, Jeffrey James, Chad McEvoy, Chad Seifried, Elizabeth Delia, T. Christopher Greenwell, Stephen Ross and Patrick Walsh

Published 4 decades ago, “Basking in Reflected Glory: Three (Football) Field Studies” (Cialdini et al., 1976) is the most influential study of sport consumer behavior. This article features re-creations of Studies 1 and 2, exactly 40 years after the original publication. The results of Study 1 were reproduced, with participants more than twice as likely to wear school-affiliated apparel after wins and 55% less likely after losses. The study also extends the BIRGing literature in its investigation of the influence of gender and the effect’s salience over time. Study 2’s results were not reproduced. However, study participants were significantly more likely to use first-person plural pronouns, providing further empirical evidence of BIRGing behaviors. This article makes a novel contribution to the sport consumer behavior literature by advancing the study of one of the field’s most foundational theories and serving as an impetus for future investigations of BIRGing motivations.

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Craig Hyatt, Shannon Kerwin, Larena Hoeber and Katherine Sveinson

long-lasting persistent fandom (first developing an awareness that specific sports or teams exist and then being attracted to them), Funk and James ( 2001 ) and other sport consumer behavior researchers have noted that potential socializing agents may typically include family members and friends

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Ben Larkin and Janet S. Fink

collective narcissism construct to sport consumer behavior scholars and explore its role in predicting many of the negative consequences that have long been associated with sport fans (e.g., dysfunctional fandom, hostile aggression, and instrumental aggression) but have been cast as being symptomatic of a

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Matthew Katz, Bob Heere and E. Nicole Melton

value through sport–fan interactions ( Woratschek, Horbel, & Popp, 2014 ). Previous scholars have called for utilizing network approaches in studying diverse sport topics ( Quatman & Chelladurai, 2008 ; Wäsche, Dickson, Woll, & Brandes, 2017 ), including sport consumer behavior generally and the study

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Matthew Katz, Thomas A. Baker III and Hui Du

marketing scholars have long noted the importance of both personal relationships ( McPherson, 1976 ) and social interactions ( Melnick, 1993 ; Trail & James, 2001 ) in dictating sport consumer behaviors. Sport fans cocreate the value of their consumption experience by interacting with others and

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Brendan Dwyer

The business of fantasy football is a multibillion dollar-per-year industry. However, academic inquiry into the distinct attitudes and intentions of fantasy football participants is underdeveloped. Therefore, following Fazio, Powell, and Herr’s proposed attitude–behavior framework, this study examined the relationship between sport fans’ attitudes, fantasy football involvement level, and intentions to watch the televised broadcast of National Football League (NFL) games. The results suggest that fantasy football is a noteworthy connection point for NFL fans. Specifically, fantasy participation appears to duplicate the positive and negative attitudes of traditional team fandom, and this replication ultimately increases television viewership throughout the league. Thus, instead of competing with traditional team-focused professional-football viewership, fantasy football appears to be a complementary or value-adding activity. Discussed are theoretical outcomes, as well as the practical implications for sport marketers and media providers looking to capitalize on this highly popular and lucrative online activity.

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Jun Woo Kim, Marshall Magnusen and Hyun-Woo Lee

range that are mutually exclusive, which is representative of a traditional approach to the study of emotion. However, as it will be discussed in the next section, this is not the only perspective that can be used to frame emotions in sport consumer behavior contexts. Mixed Emotions There are two main

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Nicholas M. Watanabe, Grace Yan, Brian P. Soebbing and Wantong Fu

, attention is placed on sport consumer behaviors in China, where the severity and geographic scope of air pollution exists as a curious and compelling context. As stated by many scholars, unprecedented pollution is present in most provinces, particularly affecting metropolitan populations ( Lu et al., 2015