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Kari Roethlisberger, Vista Beasley, Jeffrey Martin, Brigid Byrd, Krista Munroe-Chandler and Irene Muir

, 2011 ). Three major contributors to young females’ attrition from organized sport include lack of sport commitment, dedication to other competing priorities, and a lack of sport enjoyment ( Brown, Salmon, & Pearson, 2014 ; Crane & Temple, 2015 ). Sport commitment is the psychological condition that

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Katherine A. Tamminen, Patrick Gaudreau, Carolyn E. McEwen and Peter R.E. Crocker

Efforts to regulate emotions can influence others, and interpersonal emotion regulation within teams may affect athletes’ own affective and motivational outcomes. We examined adolescent athletes’ (N = 451, N teams = 38) self- and interpersonal emotion regulation, as well as associations with peer climate, sport enjoyment, and sport commitment within a multilevel model of emotion regulation in teams. Results of multilevel Bayesian structural equation modeling showed that athletes’ self-worsening emotion regulation strategies were negatively associated with enjoyment while other-improving emotion regulation strategies were positively associated enjoyment and commitment. The team-level interpersonal emotion regulation climate and peer motivational climates were also associated with enjoyment and commitment. Team-level factors moderated some of the relationships between athletes’ emotion regulation with enjoyment and commitment. These findings extend previous research by examining interpersonal emotion regulation within teams using a multilevel approach, and they demonstrate the importance of person- and team-level factors for athletes’ enjoyment and commitment.

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Paul J. McCarthy and Marc V. Jones

This focus group study examined the sources of enjoyment and nonenjoyment among younger and older English children in the sampling years of sport participation (ages 7–12). Concurrent inductive and deductive content analysis revealed that, consistent with previous research, younger and older children reported sources of enjoyment such as perceived competence, social involvement and friendships, psychosocial support, and a mastery-oriented learning environment. Nonenjoyment sources included inappropriate psychosocial support, increasing competitive orientation, negative feedback and reinforcement, injuries, pain, and demonstrating a lack of competence. Differences between younger and older children’s sources of enjoyment and nonenjoyment also emerged. Younger children reported movement sensations as a source of enjoyment and punishment for skill errors and low informational support as nonenjoyment sources. Older children reported social recognition of competence, encouragement, excitement, and challenge as sources of enjoyment with rivalry, overtraining, and high standards as sources of nonenjoyment. These differences underscore the importance of tailoring youth sport in the sampling years to the needs of the child.

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Tara K. Scanlan, David G. Russell, T. Michelle Magyar and Larry A. Scanlan

The Sport Commitment Model was further tested using the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method to examine its generalizability to New Zealand’s elite female amateur netball team, the Silver Ferns. Results supported or clarified Sport Commitment Model predictions, revealed avenues for model expansion, and elucidated the functions of perceived competence and enjoyment in the commitment process. A comparison and contrast of the in-depth interview data from the Silver Ferns with previous interview data from a comparable elite team of amateur male athletes allowed assessment of model external validity, tested the generalizability of the underlying mechanisms, and separated gender differences from discrepancies that simply reflected team or idiosyncratic differences.

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Maike Tietjens, Dennis Dreiskaemper, Till Utesch, Nadja Schott, Lisa M. Barnett and Trina Hinkley

-friendly way for competent and less competent performances (illustrated by K. Fielstedde modelled on the illustrations used in Barnett et al., 2015 , with permission of the lead author). We included an additional item on sport-enjoyment, as an established predictor of sport and physical-activity behavior (e

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Katherine A. Tamminen, Kaleigh Ferdinand Pennock and Courtney Braun

, conflicts with opponents, parental pressures to succeed, and concerns about injury ( Butcher, Lindner, & Johns, 2002 ; Gould, Feltz, Horn, & Weiss, 1982 ; Siesmaa, Blitvich, & Finch, 2011 ; Sirard, Pfeiffer, & Pate, 2006 ). The ability to cope with stressors may improve sport enjoyment and sport

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Paul J. Carpenter and Tara K. Scanlan

The purpose of this study was to examine whether changes over time in the determinants of sport commitment would be related to predicted changes in commitment. Male and female (N = 103) high school soccer players completed surveys toward the middle and at the end of their regular season. A simultaneous multiple regression analysis indicated that commitment was significantly predicted by changes in involvement opportunities. Examination of the mean magnitude of changes in the determinants and corresponding changes in commitment using a series of correlated t-tests revealed significant effects for sport enjoyment and involvement opportunities. For those players whose sport enjoyment and involvement opportunities had declined, there was a corresponding decrease in their commitment. For those players whose involvement opportunities had increased, there was a corresponding increase in their commitment. Combined, these results provided support for a priori hypotheses regarding changes in the determinants of commitment over time and corresponding changes in commitment.

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Paul J. Carpenter, Tara K. Scanlan, Jeffery P. Simons and Marci Lobel

This article presents the results of a structural equation modeling analysis of the Sport Commitment Model. This model proposes that commitment is determined by sport enjoyment, involvement alternatives, personal investments, social constraints, and involvement opportunities. Preliminary analyses demonstrated that the model was applicable to both younger (< 12 years old) and older (> 13 years old) athletes, to males and females, and to three different team sports. Structural equation modeling results demonstrated that the proposed model was a good fit of the data (CFI = .981), with the findings accounting for 68% of the commitment variance. As predicted, greater sport enjoyment, involvement opportunities, and the personal investments of time and effort led to greater commitment. Counter to our initial hypothesis, commitment was negatively related to social constraints. Measurement problems led to the involvement alternatives component being excluded from tests of the model presented here, but not from the theoretical model.

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Jeffrey J. Martin

Psychosocial aspects of participation in youth disability sport were examined using social-cognitive theory and the sport commitment model. An international sample of athletes with disabilities (N = 112) reported high levels of sport commitment and sport enjoyment, perceived physical ability, and sport friendship quality. They perceived their parents to provide moderately strong levels of encouragement of their sport participation. Correlational analyses indicated moderate to strong relationships among sport commitment, sport enjoyment, and perceived physical ability. Sport commitment, parental encouragement, and sport friendship quality were only somewhat related. Regression analyses indicated that enjoyment was a significant predictor (i.e., 43% of the variance) of sport commitment. The sport experience was a positive one for these athletes and enjoyment is likely a critical motivational factor in promoting a continued desire to remain in sport.

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Tara K. Scanlan, Paul J. Carpenter, Marci Lobel and Jeffery P. Simons

The positive emotion of enjoyment has been shown to be an important ingredient to motivation in youth and elite sport. This article first summarizes the progress made to date in developing and measuring the enjoyment construct, and in understanding its sources and motivational consequences. Then a field study is presented that focuses on sources of enjoyment in a large youth sample (N=1,342) that is diverse image, ethnicity, and gender. Factor analytic and multiple regression techniques were used to determine categories and predictors of sport enjoyment. The significant sources of enjoyment for these participants were greater effort and mastery, positive team interactions and support, and positive coach support and satisfaction with the players’ seasonal performance. These findings accounted for 47% of the variance in sport enjoyment and shed light on the predictors of this important affect for a diverse group of athletes.