Competitive engineering is a process whereby sport organizations modify the rules, facilities, and equipment involved in sport to facilitate desirable athlete outcomes and experiences. Competitive engineering is being increasingly adopted by youth sport organizations with empirical evidence positively supporting its influence on skill development and performance. The purpose of this study was to explore young female athletes’ experiences in their modified soccer environment. Seventeen recreational and competitive soccer players, aged 8–11, participated in semistructured photo elicitation interviews that featured several visual qualitative methods (i.e., athlete-directed photography, drawing exercises, and pile-sorting) to facilitate insight on their sport environments. Results revealed that the athletes’ competitively engineered soccer experience was perceived as being a distinct environment that emphasized personal development, positive relationships, and the underlying enjoyment of sport. These findings shed light of how youth sport structure modifications influence the athletes’ experiences, providing practical implications to further promote positive youth sport experiences.
Michelle McCalpin, Blair Evans and Jean Côté
Thomas W. Pelham, Laurence E. Holt and Michael A. Moss
The objective of this study was to examine pre- and postexercise pulmonary function of males (13 children with asthma, 8 children without asthma) performing controlled exercise in 3 indoor sport environments: ice rink, gymnasium, and swimming pool. A positive test was defined as a 20% decrease in any of the forced expiratory values. Three children with asthma and 2 children without asthma had a greater than 20% decrease in FEV1 and FHVT following activity in the rink. One child with asthma had a greater than a 20% decrease in FEV1 following pool activity. In general, results showed children with asthma had a significant (p < .05) decrease in both FEV1 and FEVT% 5 min following exercise in the ice rink. No similar decrease was found 5 min following gymnasium and pool activity of the same intensity. In general, children without asthma maintained normal pulmonary function in all 3 environments. Evidence from this study would seem to suggest that the environmental conditions of the indoor ice rink may potentiate bronchospasm in some children with asthma.
Andrew J.A. Hall, Leigh Jones and Russell J.J. Martindale
findings from this research, the following recommendations and limitations were identified to help guide practitioners in similar developing sport environments: (a) while the 59 item TDEQ is split into recognised factors, utilising the TDEQ on an item by item basis, and theming the responses specific to
Brenda A. Riemer
This study is an examination of the identity formation of lesbians in sport and how lesbians interpreted the softball environment with regard to social support and the ability to be open about their lesbianism. Twenty four women on summer slow pitch softball teams, and 5 spectators, participated in qualitative interviews. Responses were consistent with a model of lesbian identity formation that included preconformist, conformist, post-conformist, lesbian conformist, and lesbian post-conformist levels. The support these women received from softball players helped them to come out to others and to enter the lesbian community.
Kristoffer Henriksen, Carsten Hvid Larsen, Louise Kamuk Storm and Knud Ryom
Young competitive athletes are not miniature elite athletes; they are a distinct client group to whom sport psychology practitioners (SPPs) increasingly deliver services. Interventions with this client group are often undertaken by newly educated SPPs who are in need of good guiding principles. Yet, there is a lack of research informing SPPs’ work with this group. In this current study, semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with four experienced practitioners about their most successful interventions in competitive youth sport. Analysis showed three major themes: (a) young athletes should be equipped with a holistic skills package that enables them to handle a number of existential challenges; (b) young athletes are embedded in an environment (coaches, experts, teammates etc.) that should be involved in the interventions; and (c) interventions with young athletes should maintain a long-term focus. These themes are discussed in the context of current literature on sport psychology service delivery.
Mark Eys, Todd Loughead, Steven R. Bray and Albert V. Carron
The purpose of the current study was to initiate the development of a psychometrically sound measure of cohesion for youth sport groups. A series of projects were undertaken in a four-phase research program. The initial phase was designed to garner an understanding of how youth sport group members perceived the concept of cohesion through focus groups (n = 56), open-ended questionnaires (n = 280), and a literature review. In Phase 2, information from the initial projects was used in the development of 142 potential items and content validity was assessed. In Phase 3, 227 participants completed a revised 87-item questionnaire. Principal components analyses further reduced the number of items to 17 and suggested a two-factor structure (i.e., task and social cohesion dimensions). Finally, support for the factorial validity of the resultant questionnaire was provided through confirmatory factor analyses with an independent sample (n = 352) in Phase 4. The final version of the questionnaire contains 16 items that assess task and social cohesion in addition to 2 negatively worded spurious items. Specific issues related to assessing youth perceptions of cohesion are discussed and future research directions are suggested.
Michelle Seanor, Robert J. Schinke, Natalia B. Stambulova, Kristoffer Henriksen, Dave Ross and Cole Giffin
organizational culture of a sport environment to produce successful or unsuccessful outcomes (see Henriksen & Stambulova, 2017 for a review). Findings from studies embracing the HEA reveal that sport environments are idiosyncratic. Henriksen and Stambulova conducted case studies in different sport environments
Holly Thorpe, Julie Brice and Anna Rolleston
far from ideal, would hopefully be a step towards raising critical questions about the importance of recognizing the nuanced relationship between culture and ethnicity in high performance sport environments. Rather than overlooking the sub-set of data that emerged organically from our interviews, we
Mark Eys, Mark R. Beauchamp, Michael Godfrey, Kim Dawson, Todd M. Loughead and Robert J. Schinke
previous research (e.g., Eys, Carron, Bray, & Beauchamp, 2005 ). Responses were obtained on a 9-point Likert type scale anchored at 1 (s trongly disagree ) and 9 ( strongly agree ). Although these intentions represent different aspects of the sport environment, participants answered the questions
Gavin Breslin, Stephen Shannon, Kyle Ferguson, Shauna Devlin, Tandy Haughey and Garry Prentice
mental illness within team sports compared to individual sports suggests the presence of sport-specific cultural norms. Involvement in a team sport environment, therefore is not as big a barrier, as once thought ( Lopez & Levy, 2013 ), to seeking help for mental health problems, according to our sample