With an increasing emphasis on the social value of sport and events, there has been a shift in focus regarding the management and development process of event projects as well as their associated outcomes. This shift is about emphasizing a more strategic approach to developing social benefits by recognizing and utilizing leverageable resources related to sport events as a means of fostering lasting social and economic change (Chalip, 2006; O’Brien & Chalip, 2007; Schulenkorf & Edwards, 2012). In this paper, we adapt and apply the asset-based community development (ABCD) approach as a means of developing a more action-oriented, community-based approach to leveraging the social assets of sporting events. In applying the ABCD approach, we aim to shift the focus of event-led projects away from attempts to “solve” social problems (i.e., deficit perspective) to enhancing the existing strengths of communities (i.e., strengths perspective). We reflect on case study findings that highlight the challenges and opportunities in realizing an ABCD approach for disadvantaged communities through an examination of a healthy lifestyle community event initiative in the Pacific Islands.
Laura Misener and Nico Schulenkorf
Erik L. Lachance and Milena M. Parent
Volunteers have been recognized as indispensable resources for the survival and success of sport events ( Bang & Chelladurai, 2009 ). To date, current research on volunteers in sport events has examined the volunteer experience in relation to constructs, which include, but is not limited to
Brent D. Oja, Henry T. Wear and Aaron W. Clopton
A myriad of scholars have explored the notion of sport events as community assets in both fiduciary economic terms (e.g., Li, Blake, & Thomas, 2013 ; Mills & Rosentraub, 2013 ) and intangible terms (e.g., Burgan & Mules, 1992 ; Chalip, 2006 ; Gibson, 1998 ; Ritchie, 1984 ). Specific examples
Larry Dwyer and Liz Fredline
As noted in Part I of Special Sport Events which appeared in Volume 22, Issue 4 of the Journal of Sport Management, sport events are increasingly contributing to the economic and social development of cities, regions, and countries. The justification to host large-scale sport events is often done on the role these events play in building social capital, attracting tourists, foster trade relations, enhance the host destination’s brand, and serve as catalysts for the development and improvements of infrastructures. It is imperative to understand the unique challenges of managing and marketing special sport events. We believe that Part I of the special issue on special sport events and this collection of articles (Part II) address many of the challenges related to these sport events. In the following pages, we outline the articles featured in the second issue devoted to the topic of special sport events.
Larry Dwyer and Liz Fredline
Cities, regions, and countries are making increasing use of special sport events in their economic and social development mix. Governments and event organizers often justify special sport events on the grounds that such events can build social capital, attract visitors, foster trade, enhance the host destination’s brand, and serve as catalysts for the development of new infrastructure. As a result of the proliferation of special sport events, there is an increasing need to determine the means via which events do (and do not) contribute to their stated social and economic development objectives. Consequently, it is vital to understand the unique challenges of managing and marketing special sport events.
Michelle Hayes, Kevin Filo, Caroline Riot and Andrea Geurin
continue to scrutinize athletes’ time spent on social media during major sport events, with some suggesting that social media use could be affecting athlete performance and calling for social media bans during competitions ( Fynes-Clinton, 2012 ). Others have suggested that athletes replicate their daily
Fei Gao, Bob Heere, Samuel Y. Todd and Brian Mihalik
negative finding, yet they later reported a decrease of ethnic identity, which, according to them, might have led to higher perceptions of unity ( Heere et al., 2016 ). Not only is the evaluation of social impact of mega sport events complicated, but also the exercise itself can perhaps be questioned, as
Bob Heere, Henry Wear, Adam Jones, Tim Breitbarth, Xiaoyan Xing, Juan Luis Paramio Salcines, Masayuki Yoshida and Inge Derom
revitalize downtown areas ( Smith, 2011 ). Cities have also bid for large sport events to be hosted in their city in the hope of attracting tourists and spur economic development ( Fourie & Santago-Gallego, 2011 ; Green, Costa, & Fitzgerald, 2003 ; Jones, 2015 ; Smith, 2005 ). These sport events, ranging
Richard J. Buning and Heather Gibson
Using the event-travel-career concept, this study examined the trajectory of active-sport-event travel careers through stages of development and the corresponding factors and dimensions perceived to influence career progression in the sport of cycling. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 amateur cyclists engaged in lifestyles geared toward active event travel. A grounded theory approach revealed that active event travel careers evolve through a complex progression of 9 core themes and related subthemes. The core themes included the first event, starting out, motivation, temporal, travel style, destination criteria, event types, spatial, and later in life. On the basis of these findings, a 6-stage active-sport-event travel career model is proposed consisting of initiation, introduction, expansion, peak threshold, maintenance, and maturity. From this model, theoretical contributions, suggestions for future research, and practical implications for sport tourism and event management are discussed.
Harry Arne Solberg and Holger Preuss
Hosting major sport events can cause positive shifts in tourism demand on a long-term basis, but the additional revenues might not counterbalance the investment costs that are required of the host destination. Whether positive shifts have actually occurred cannot be measured solely by counting the additional number of tourists. Increases might also come from positive shifts in supply. Megaevents require expensive investments in sport facilities, as well as in nonsport city-related infrastructure. These investments must fit into the city’s long-term plan to make the event economically successful. The demand from tourists can subsidize the production of goods and services that are characterized by the advantages of economies of scale. This provides local residents with goods and services that they otherwise could have only consumed outside the region. Many of the benefits from sport events fall into the category of public goods. This represents a rationale for governmental funding if those who benefit are driven by free-rider incentives. The prospect of governmental funding, however, provides motives to exaggerate the socioeconomic value of the events. This complicates the job of deciding which events to support and by how much.