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Seong-Hee Park, Daniel Mahony and Yu Kyoum Kim

Most literature on sport fan behaviors has focused on highly identified or loyal sport fans. While the literature has found that factors influencing current sport fans and their behaviors are related to, and based on, various psychological, social, and cultural factors, only a limited number of studies have investigated what factors initially attract individuals to consume sport. Curiosity has been found to be one of the crucial motivators that initially influence human exploratory behaviors in many domains. Using theories of curiosity, the present review aims to shed light on the role of curiosity in explaining various sport fan behaviors.

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Bastian Popp, Chris Horbel and Claas Christian Germelmann

This study investigated social-media-based anti-sponsor-brand communities and their impacts, not only on the sponsoring brand but also on the sponsored club and the sport itself. Guided by balance theory and social identity theory, the authors conducted a qualitative study of 2 distinctive, prototypical Facebook-based anti-sponsor-brand communities of teams from the German Football League (Bundesliga). The results reveal common findings for both cases, including members’ motivation to oppose a sponsor and, at the same time, to protect the sport. However, the communities differ in terms of their members’ relationships to the club. This results in different consequences for the sponsor and club brands, as well as for other actors in the sponsorship network. To managers of clubs, sponsors, and sport-governing bodies, the authors suggest concerted strategies like image campaigns and interaction with anti-sponsor-brand communities as responses to different community motivations.

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Ben Larkin and Janet S. Fink

showing that it may sometimes take a different form, with wide-ranging implications for our understanding of sport fan behavior moving forward. Theoretical Framework Team Identification Identity in sport fandom has been conceptualized primarily as either a role-based identity (rooted in identity theory

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Michael Kirkwood, Sheau-Fen Yap and Yingzi Xu

& Bernache-Assollant, 2011 ; Tajfel & Turner, 1986 ). Social identity, specifically in-group and out-group bias, is prevalent in sport-fan behavior ( Smith & Smith, 2012 ). Team identification provides fans with a feeling of solidarity and attachment, sharing in the glory of wins and agony of losses

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Yongjae Kim, Soojin Kim and Elizabeth Rogol

consistent with previous studies showing that perceived usefulness, enjoyment, and trustworthiness had significant positive effects on sport fansbehavioral intention of using sport media technology ( Hur et al., 2011 ). Perceived usefulness was the most significant determinant of intention with a path

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Seong-Hee Park, Jae-Pil Ha and Daniel Mahony

While there is a relatively rich literature measuring curiosity outside of sport, there is little research on measuring sport fans’ curiosity. Based on Berlyne’s (1960) two dimensions of curiosity, the current research project aimed to develop a reliable and valid measurement scale for sport fans’ specific curiosity. Convenience samples of university students were used. Three studies were used to develop the 11-item Sport Fan Specific Curiosity Scale (SFSCS) was developed. Specifically, the SFSCS consisted of three factors: specific information (5 items), general information (3 items), and sport facility information (3 items). The SFSCS was found to be a reliable and valid scale to measure sport fans’ specific curiosity. The scale should be useful in predicting aspects of sport fan behavior for sport fans at various stages.

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Seong Hee Park, Daniel F. Mahony and T. Christopher Greenwell

Curiosity has been regarded as a key intrinsic motivational drive for facilitating human exploratory behaviors in many domains, such as psychology, education, and sport. However, no attempt has been made to measure curiosity in a sport context. The purpose of this study was to develop an effective and efficient sport fan exploratory curiosity scale (SFECS). A total of 657 participants were recruited and completed surveys. Various statistical analyses were used to examine the reliability and validity of the scale. The analyses resulted in a reliable and valid scale with three factors (Excitement, New Sport Events, Sport Facility) and a total of 10-items. The SFECS was useful in predicting various sport fan behaviors. Future research should be done in an effort to further refine the scale and to examine the role of curiosity in various practical areas in a sport context.

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Young Do Kim and Anthony Weaver

-ignored social and cultural issues in spectator sport today—the dangerous and dark side of modern sport fan behavior. Gubar gives the reader an in-depth look at the historical, scientific, and ethnographic evidence of various fan misbehaviors and addresses the key question: “What causes seemingly unremarkable

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Matthew Katz, Thomas A. Baker III and Hui Du

subgroups discussed by Tyler ( 2013 ) or Kerr and Emery ( 2011 ), plus the relational groups noted by Katz and Heere ( 2013 ), all appear to meet the markers of a brand community. Although the extant literature includes investigations into the influence of multiple identities on sport fan behavior ( Delia

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Grace Yan, Dustin Steller, Nicholas M. Watanabe and Nels Popp

sport fansbehaviors in dynamic and convergent media environments. References Clavio , G. ( 2011 ). Social media and the college football audience . Journal of Issues in Intercollegiate Athletics, 4 , 309 – 325 . Clavio , G. , & Frederick , E. ( 2014 ). Sharing is caring: An exploration of