Teaching a graduate level sport finance class can be quite complex. With a variety of concepts such as pricing, budgeting, and public funding, to convey in a limited amount of time, new forms of pedagogy are necessary to assist instructors as this technologically-advanced generation enters into academia. Subsequently, technology has been created to apply basic concepts related to finance to the complexity of a professional sports organization. One such program is the Oakland A’s Baseball Business Simulator. Through interviews and “emotional recall” (Ellis, 2004), this evaluative case study seeks to determine the effectiveness of this technology within this environment.
Joris Drayer and Daniel A. Rascher
Liz Wanless and Jeffrey L. Stinson
. , Rascher , D. , & Stewart , R. ( 2016 ). Where is everyone? An examination of attendance at college football bowl games . International Journal of Sport Finance, 11 , 26 – 45 . Fugazzotto , S.J. ( 2010 ). Physical space and the resource-based view of the college . Innovation Higher Education
Kristi Sweeney and Megan Schramm-Possinger
Understanding factors that influence live game-day attendance has garnered significant attention from both researchers and practitioners in the sport industry. Despite the National Football League’s unprecedented annual revenues, league attendance remains down, spurring large-scale investment into the game-day experience (Florio, 2008). In this case, students will perform various statistical analyses (i.e., computing chi-square tests of independence, t tests, effect sizes [Cohen’s d], and confidence intervals) to determine which factors most strongly influence fan attendance at Jacksonville Jaguars home games. Specifically, this case investigates the degree to which stadium upgrades motivate fans to attend and explores the extent to which fans support the use of public funds for stadium upgrades. Answering these questions will further equip future sport managers to make data-driven decisions regarding the utility of strategies—such as stadium projects—to enhance the game-day experience. Furthermore, students can use the knowledge gained from the case to critically analyze public investment in sport stadia as well as the ways in which consumers’ preferences are either independent of or depend on categorical variables such as gender. The case is intended for use in research methods courses and is also applicable to sport marketing, sport facility, and sport finance courses.
Janos Vaczi and Peter Berkes
In Hungary, sports do not appropriately act as a social and economic catalyst in the key market segments—leisure sports and spectator sports. To date, despite the media’s increasing role in sports sponsorships, no coherent model has been presented to improve Hungary’s chronically underfunded sport industry by raising extra funds. The reviewed international literature fails to provide a consistent and uniform model. The first part of the study describes the history of Hungary’s sport industry in the past 20 years. An examination of the background of sports funding is followed by a description of key directions in funding practices. The focus is on providing a high-level introduction to the various funding systems. The conclusion is that with the necessary communication and media support, a new gambling-related, government-controlled sport-marketing program can provide extra funds for Olympic sports federations and the sport industry in general.
David Rolfe and Steve Dittmore
Traditional sports ticket sales have followed a basic model of tickets in exchange for cash or credit. In an evolving and competitive market, sports marketing professionals must adapt and consider alternate forms of ticket sales. This case study follows Julie Lin, the director of ticket sales for a fictional National Hockey League expansion team, the Seattle Salmon. In an effort to align with the strategic vision of being considered a highly innovative sports franchise, Lin is considering accepting Bitcoin, a virtual currency, as a form of payment. Considered a “cryptocurrency,” Bitcoin is awarded through the solving of complex computer riddles, is devoid of a physical form, has no government or regulatory body backing it, and has value based largely on speculation. Bitcoin has found popularity and legitimacy among technology companies and companies considered to be innovative. At the present time, three professional sports accept Bitcoin for the purchase of tickets. This case will follow Lin and her exploration of Bitcoin within her franchise. Readers will consider positive and negative aspects of Bitcoin in a sports ticketing environment, and ultimately present an educated and data-driven recommendation regarding the details of this case.
Jeffrey A. Graham, Robin L. Hardin and James Bemiller
The News-Sentinel Open presented by Pilot is an event on the Web.com Tour. The Web.com Tour began in 1990 with the name of the Ben Hogan Tour and has transitioned through several title sponsors, taking its current name in June 2012. The tour is the developmental tour for the PGA Tour and the primary means for professional golfers to earn playing privileges on the PGA Tour. Tournaments are 72-hole stroke play events featuring between 144 and 156 golfers. This specific tournament is staged in Knoxville, Tennessee, and is one of only three original tour stops from the inaugural season in 1990. In an effort to measure economic impact in the greater Knoxville area resulting from the tournament weekend, the News-Sentinel Open has commissioned an economic impact study. This case study challenges students to analyze data collected from the economic impact study commissioned by the tour organizers. By engaging with this case study, and its accompanying data and results, students will gain insight into best practices of planning, conducting, and analyzing an ethical economic impact study.
B. David Tyler
Time Value of Money (TVM) is an essential concept within finance, yet its fundamentals confuse many students. This case offers the TVM Decision Tree to guide students to logical solutions through a step-by-step approach that requires critical thinking about cash flows. Students follow a sport agent as she reviews contract offers for her client. She received four offers with payments structured in wildly different ways, including single payments, growing annuities, and delayed annuities. She must use her knowledge of TVM and the TVM Decision Tree to determine which contract will provide her client with the largest contact in terms of PV. She will find that the contracts with the largest nominal values are not necessarily worth the most in terms of PV. She will also see the impact that different discount rates can have in making her decisions, as well as learn about deferred compensation within professional sports.
Margaret Keiper, Dylan Williams and Gil Fried
Fraud is a very broad term, but the underlying theme is the intentional act of deception for personal financial gain. This case study highlights three examples of fraud at different levels of sport: youth, collegiate, and professional. Students are provided a broad perspective of financial fraud and are exposed to differing types of criminal activity at each level of sport. Furthermore, the authors provide an understanding of financial fraud, illegal activities related to fraud, and the responsibilities that all sport management professionals have within various positions at each respective level. Finally, this case provides students with an opportunity to suggest solutions and deterrents for dealing with financial fraud at each level. Specifically, the authors provide a rationale for the use of internal controls within an organization to segregate an organization’s financial responsibilities and reduce the risk of financial fraud.
Emily S. Sparvero, Stacy Warner and Angela N. Pratt
Norm O’Reilly, Denyse Lafrance Horning and Ghazal Bandeh-Bahman
This case study presents seven challenges regarding the implementation of a National Sport Organization (NSO) loyalty program. Drawing on relationship marketing and sponsorship, the case traces the evolution of the Club Hockey Canada loyalty program, managed by Hockey Canada, a large and successful NSO. The case describes the following seven challenges for managers: resource allocation, process management, branding, rules and regulations for a key element of the program (i.e., Puck Bucks), risk management, sponsorship, and cost recovery. Targeted to upper year undergraduate and graduate students in sport finance or sport marketing, the case is based on information provided by Hockey Canada and secondary research. In completing the case, students will be able to learn about the seven challenges in building a successful loyalty program.