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Diane M. Wiese-Bjornstal, Kristin N. Wood, Andrew C. White, Amanda J. Wambach and Victor J. Rubio

Coping with sport injuries is one of the realities of engagement in physical activity, and a significant body of evidence on the psychological aspects of sport injuries documents the stressful and challenging nature of injury experiences ( Wiese-Bjornstal, Smith, Shaffer, & Morrey, 1998 ). Many

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Ross Wadey, Kylie Roy-Davis, Lynne Evans, Karen Howells, Jade Salim and Ceri Diss

, & Fletcher, 2017 ). Examples of the types of adversity examined include deselection ( Neely, Dunn, McHugh, & Holt, 2018 ); sport injury ( Roy-Davis, Wadey, & Evans, 2017 ); performance slumps, coach conflicts, bullying, eating disorders, and sexual abuse ( Tamminen, Holt, & Neely, 2013 ); and repeated

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Courtney W. Hess, Stacy L. Gnacinski and Barbara B. Meyer

As the rate of sport participation steadily increases around the globe, so too does the frequency of sport injuries ( Caine, Caine, & Maffulli, 2006 ). Researchers have consistently reported high injury rates across sports ( Caine et al., 2006 ; Maffulli, Longo, Spiezia, & Denaro, 2010 ; Swenson

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Zenzi Huysmans and Damien Clement

study aimed to provide an initial exploration of the application of self-compassion within the context of sport injury. It was theorized that within the framework of Williams and Andersen’s ( 1998 ) stress-injury model, self-compassion would predict healthier responses to stress and may therefore reduce

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Alana Ninedek and Gregory S. Kelt

Context:

Recent literature has focused on the role of physiotherapists in addressing psychological sequelae of sport injury and rehabilitation.

Objective:

The study investigated sports physiotherapists' views of psychological characteristics that distinguished athletes who cope well with injury from those who cope poorly. Physiotherapists' opinions on the role of psychological skills in rehabilitation were also examined.

Design:

A questionnaire-based study.

Participants:

Participants were 150 physiotherapists who had completed, or were completing, a postgraduate sports physiotherapy program.

Main Outcome Measures:

The test instrument used was the Sports Physiotherapists' Views on Psychological Strategies questionnaire (adapted from Wiese et al1).

Results:

The physiotherapists reported communication skills, a positive attitude, intrinsic motivation, and realistic goal setting as important aspects of effective rehabilitation.

Conclusions:

The findings are discussed in relation to physiotherapists' roles in addressing basic psychological aspects of injury.

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Monna Arvinen-Barrow, Damien Clement, Jennifer Jordan Hamson-Utley, Cindra Kamphoff, Rebecca Zakrajsek, Sae-Mi Lee, Brian Hemmings, Taru Lintunen and Scott B. Martin

Context:

Athletes enter injury rehabilitation with certain expectations about the recovery process, outcomes, and the professional providing treatment. Their expectations influence the effectiveness of the assistance received and affect the overall rehabilitation process. Expectations may vary depending on numerous factors such as sport experience, gender, sport type, and cultural background. Unfortunately, limited information is available on athletes’ expectations about sport-injury rehabilitation.

Objective:

To examine possible differences in athletes’ expectations about sport-injury rehabilitation based on their country of residence and type of sport (contact vs noncontact).

Design:

Cross-sectional.

Setting:

Recreational, college, and professional athletes from the US, UK, and Finland were surveyed.

Participants:

Of the 1209 athletes ranging from 12 to 80 y of age (mean 23.46 ± 7.91), 529 US [80%], 253 UK [86%], and 199 Finnish [82%] athletes provided details of their geographical location and were included in the final analyses.

Main Outcome Measures:

The Expectations About Athletic Training (EAAT) questionnaire was used to determine athletes’ expectations about personal commitment, facilitative conditions, and the expertise of the sports-medicine professional (SMP).

Results:

A 3 × 2 MANCOVA revealed significant main effects for country (P = .0001, ηp 2 = .055) and sport type (P = .0001, ηp 2 = .023). Specifically, US athletes were found to have higher expectations of personal commitment and facilitative conditions than their UK and Finnish counterparts. Athletes participating in contact sports had higher expectations of facilitative conditions and the expertise of the SMP than did athletes participating in noncontact sports.

Conclusions:

SMPs, especially those in the US, should consider the sport and environment when providing services. In addition, SMPs need to highlight and demonstrate their expertise during the rehabilitation process, especially for those who compete in contact sports.

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Monna Arvinen-Barrow, Damien Clement, Jennifer J. Hamson-Utley, Rebecca A. Zakrajsek, Sae-Mi Lee, Cindra Kamphoff, Taru Lintunen, Brian Hemmings and Scott B. Martin

Context:

Existing theoretical frameworks and empirical research support the applicability and usefulness of integrating mental skills throughout sport injury rehabilitation.

Objective:

To determine what, if any, mental skills athletes use during injury rehabilitation, and by who these skills were taught. Cross-cultural differences were also examined.

Design:

Cross-sectional design.

Setting:

College athletes from 5 universities in the United States and a mixture of collegiate, professional, and recreational club athletes from the United Kingdom and Finland were recruited for this study.

Participants:

A total of 1283 athletes from the United States, United Kingdom, and Finland, who participated in diverse sports at varying competitive levels took part in this study.

Main Outcome Measures:

As part of a larger study on athletes’ expectations of injury rehabilitation, participants were asked a series of open-ended and closed-ended questions concerning their use of mental skills during injury rehabilitation.

Results:

Over half (64.0%) of the sample reported previous experience with athletic training, while 27.0% indicated that they used mental skills during injury rehabilitation. The top 3 mental skills reported were goal setting, positive self-talk/positive thoughts, and imagery. Of those athletes that used mental skills, 71.6% indicated that they felt mental skills helped them to rehabilitate faster. A greater proportion of athletes from the United States (33.4%) reported that they used mental skills during rehabilitation compared with athletes from the United Kingdom (23.4%) and Finland (20.3%). A small portion (27.6%) of the participants indicated that their sports medicine professional had taught them how to use mental skills; only 3% were taught mental skills by a sport psychologist.

Conclusions:

The low number of athletes who reported using mental skills during rehabilitation is discouraging, but not surprising given research findings that mental skills are underutilized by injured athletes in the 3 countries examined. More effort should be focused on educating and training athletes, coaches, and sports medicine professionals on the effectiveness of mental training in the injury rehabilitation context.

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Timothy I. McCutcheon, James E. Curtis and Philip G. White

This paper reports on the distribution by socioeconomic status (SES) of injuries from sport and physical activities for each gender using data from a national sample of adult Canadians. The results show weak positive relationships between SES (various measures) and sport injury before controls for both genders, and that men are more likely to experience sports injuries than women. Workplace physical activity is negatively related to SES and negatively related to sport injury. Also, duration and intensity of sport and physical activities are positively related to SES and positively related to sport injuries. The effects of these intervening variables help account for the positive relationships of SES and sport injuries.

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Derwin King-Chung Chan and Martin S. Hagger

The present study investigated the transcontextual process of motivation in sport injury prevention. We examined whether general causality orientation, perceived autonomy support from coaches (PAS), self-determined motivation (SD-Mtv), and basic need satisfaction in a sport context predicted SD-Mtv, beliefs, and adherence with respect to sport injury prevention. Elite athletes (N = 533) completed self-report measures of the predictors (Week 1) and the dependent variables (Week 2). Variance-based structural equation modeling supported hypotheses: SD-Mtv in a sport context was significantly predicted by PAS and basic need satisfaction and was positively associated with SD-Mtv for sport injury prevention when controlling for general causality orientation. SD-Mtv for sport injury prevention was a significant predictor of adherence to injury-preventive behaviors and beliefs regarding safety in sport. In conclusion, the transcontextual mechanism of motivation may explain the process by which distal motivational factors in sport direct the formation of proximal motivation, beliefs, and behaviors of sport injury prevention.

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Andrew R. Levy, Remco C.J. Polman, Peter J. Clough, David C. Marchant and Keith Earle

Objective:

To investigate the relationship between mental toughness, sport injury beliefs, pain, and adherence toward a sport injury rehabilitation program.

Design:

A prospective design was employed that evaluated adherence over the entire rehabilitation period.

Participants:

70 patients undertaking a sport injury rehabilitation program for a tendonitis related injury.

Main Outcome Measures:

Adherence was measured using self report measures of clinic and home based rehabilitation alongside attendance.

Results:

No association was found between mental toughness and coping appraisals, although high mentally tough individuals displayed more positive threat appraisals and were better able to cope with pain than their less mentally tough counterparts. Greater attendance at rehabilitation sessions was displayed by more mentally tough individuals; however, more positive behavior during clinic rehabilitation was characterized by low mental toughness.

Conclusions:

Despite the 0benefits of being mentally tough, sports medicine providers need to be aware that a high degree of mental toughness may have negative consequences upon rehabilitation behavior and subsequently recovery outcomes.