context market in the context of attitudinal loyalty, finding partial support that the principle holds in a sport setting. However, their research was limited to only National Rugby League (NRL) and AFL fans as two broad groups, excluding the remaining two football codes and other sport leagues that
Hunter Fujak, Stephen Frawley, Heath McDonald, and Stephen Bush
Rebecca M. Achen, John Kaczorowski, Trisha Horsmann, and Alanda Ketzler
content in the off-season, data were collected from 1 week in the month of March and might not be indicative of strategy. In addition, Miranda et al. ( 2014 ) found that teams in North American and European professional sport leagues were using Facebook to improve the game-day experience and entertain
Danielle K. Smith and Jonathan Casper
Sport leagues play a critical role in the sport ecosystem, often driving policy and governance for teams, athletes, and associated agencies. In the United States, the structure of professional sport lends itself to cohesive communication strategies. While there are many organizational entities
Shi Lei, Chinmoy Ghosh, and Han Srinivasan
Corporate partnerships with professional sport leagues are growing rapidly. How can we assess the value of such partnerships? Using an event study method, this research examined the economic effects of corporate partnerships with six professional sport organizations (NFL, MLB, NBA, NASCAR, NHL, and PGA). Three new interesting results were found. (1) Though a partnering firm experiences a net-of-market increase in shareholders’ value of 2.93% from a new corporate partnership with a professional sport league at the two-day window (0, +1), renewals of corporate partnerships induced a significant net-of-market decrease of 1.12% during the same window of time. (2) Cross-sectional analysis revealed that superior performing firms as well as firms with higher institutional and moderate managerial ownership benefitted more than the average, and (3) the integrations of the partnerships with other business strategies elicited different responses from the investment community. Overall, a strategic implication was that marketing-focused partnerships in financially sound, well-managed firms contributed the most to enhancement in shareholders’ wealth.
Thilo Kunkel, Daniel Funk, and Brad Hill
Understanding brand relationships as perceived by consumers is important for the successful management and marketing of connected brands. Brand architecture and consumer behavior literature was integrated in this study to examine brand relationships between professional sport leagues and teams from a consumers’ perspective. Online questionnaire data were gathered from football consumers (N = 752) to test the influence of leagues and teams on consumer loyalty. Consumers were segmented into three theoretically identified sport brand architecture groups: league dominant, team dominant, and codominant. Findings of CFA, MANOVA, paired-sample t tests, frequency analysis, chi-square and linear regression analysis revealed that leagues and teams were in a codominant relationship with one another. Results revealed the brand architecture of leagues and teams as perceived by consumers, provide a reliable and valid tool to segment sport spectators, and showcase the influence of external factors on consumer loyalty with a team. Suggestions for league and team management and marketing are presented to better leverage their brand relationship and increase consumer loyalty with both brands.
Jeffrey Petersen and David Pierce
Undergraduate sport management curriculum continues to be debated amongst this discipline’s educators. Curricular content impacts professional sport organizations as program graduates become employees. This study gathered the input of human resource professionals from NFL, MLB, and NBA franchises regarding curricular topics via an existing, modified questionnaire. The questionnaire included a five-point scale assessment of 61 curricular topics. A 34.8% response rate was proportionally distributed between the leagues. An ANOVA of means for ten curricular areas revealed significant differences with the following rank order: Field Experience 4.38; Communication 4.23; Legal Aspects 4.02; Ethics 3.98; Management and Leadership 3.97; Marketing 3.96; Economics 3.68; Budget and Finance 3.59; Governance 3.25; and Socio-Cultural Aspects 3.25. An ANOVA of topics revealed seven significant between-league differences including: Sport Sociology, Ethics, Market Shares/Ratings, Business Writing, Labor Relations, Stadium/Arena Economics, and Risk Management/Liability. These results can inform the development or modification of curricula to better prepare students for professional sport needs.
Lewis Whales, Stephen Frawley, Adam Cohen, and Natalia Nikolova
practices before the coronavirus pandemic. Professional sport leagues represent cartel-like structures of organizations that must cooperate to achieve their individual and collective interests ( Smith & Stewart, 2010 ). In the case of the SSN, these include the national sporting organization (NSO), state
training and specialization. Far less has been done to contextualize replay as constituted by and constitutive of sport media discourse, due in part to its recent deployment by sport leagues and organizations. That deployment, however, certainly supports the values underpinning scientificity, authority
Thilo Kunkel, Daniel Funk, and Ceridwyn King
Existing research has primarily focused on sport teams as brands, overlooking the branding of professional sport leagues. Professional sport leagues are required to build and leverage their brand associations to be sustainable and to help affiliated teams. This study integrated existing team brand association research with brand architecture literature to examine league brand associations from a consumer perspective. A freethought listing pilot test (N = 22) was followed by semistructured interviews (N = 26) to uncover 17 brand associations linked with professional sport leagues. Online questionnaires among consumers of four sport leagues in Australia (N = 1182) were used to support 17 distinct identified league brand associations. One sample t tests and correlation analyses empirically revealed that 17 league brand associations were linked with attitudinal and behavioral outcomes related to sport leagues. Finally, ANOVAs identified that some league brand associations differed between four leagues as perceived by consumers, reflecting league specific characteristics.
Michael M. Goldman and David P. Hedlund
provides a unique opportunity to study the ways in which media and sport organizations adapted to the suspension of scheduled leagues and events in the United States. Categorizing New Media Content Strategies This commentary examines how U.S. sport leagues and colleges developed media content strategies to